British Journal of Environmental Sciences (BJES)

EA Journals


The Nexus between Land registration and Environmental Hazards in some Urban Centers in Cameroon (Published)

The issue of land administration was and is still gaining a lot of traction in contemporary research as scholarly agendas attuned to this issue continue to proliferate because peoples’ attachment to land predates recorded history. That is why development agencies, urban development professionals and academicians in urban management issues now concur that the urban development process in less developed countries is most often than not unsustainable as the polemics in land registration is not responsive for environmental sanity given the fact that environmental hazards are the role rather than the exception. Such a trend is frightening that a pragmatic and timely research is indispensable to diagnose the intriguing situation. This paper unravels and disentangles the polemics in the land registration process in some Cameroons’ urban centers (Bamenda, Yaounde, Douala and Bafoussam) in a bid to establish the nexus between land registration and environmental hazards so as to enshrine sustainable solutions into concrete policy options. Using primary and secondary data sources, the findings aver that the land registration in Cameroons is not responsive for environmental vibrancy due to some inherent stalemates which have obfuscated the procurement process. These stalemates inter-a-lea include; inappropriate regulatory frameworks through procedural difficulties, institutional weaknesses, political exploitation and fraudulent practices. These impasses invariably breed frustration and friction to would be land/home owners who are obliged to bypass such cumbersome processes and construct in off limit terrains which are vulnerable to the caprices of environmental hazards like floods and landslides, casting doubt on government’s ability to instill a more sustainable land registration system for enhanced environmental productivity. If the land administration process is well-structured and revolutionized via good governance, this might reconfigure uncontrolled urban development to curtail such vulnerabilities to environmental hazards.

Keywords: Cameroon, Environment, Hazards, Land registration, Nexus

Analysis of Corporate Strategic Marketing Functions for Sustainable Water Resources Management: A Case of Water Resources Commission, Ghana (Published)

Water resource management has been a bane to most nations globally, and Ghana is no exception. However, the case of Ghana is exacerbated to the extent that the few rivers in the nation which supply raw water to users for treatment and then serve homes and offices are seriously being threatened through pollution, and subsequently, destruction. Most rivers in Ghana are not pleasant to the eye, due to the turbid nature of the resource. ‘Galamseyers’, fishing folks and sand winners have been destroying the water resource of Ghana; their activities should be curtailed immediately to protect the commodity. As the saying goes, water is life and once it is destroyed the implications are disastrous, as diseases and death of the populace are the outcome. The Water Resources Commission (WRC) is well positioned by the government of Ghana, according to the Act 522, to make sure the resource is not destroyed, but protected for use by all. Every support needed to fight the destruction currently going on in the river bodies should be mobilized to nib in the bud the activities of the ‘galamseyers’, to protect the resource for future generations. Globally, the environment has been affected through human destructive activities and the climate change being observed currently globally, is a testimony for all to see. COP26, the UN Climate Change Conference held at Glasgow, 2021, issued a final declaration to keep alive the ambition of curtailing global temperature increases to not go beyond 1.5oC by 2100. Governments should therefore, do well to help protect the environment, including rivers and make life comfortable for all.

Keywords: Environment, Management, Water resource, human life, pollution and sustainability., rivers, ‘galamsey’

Mapping Forest Loss and Carbon-Dioxide Sequestration Rate Between 2000 – 2015 using Remote Sensing in Akpaka Forest Reserve, Onitsha North L.G.A Of Anambra State (Published)

This study investigated the extent of forest resource loss in Akpaka Forest Reserve through mapping forest loss and rate of carbon-dioxide sequestration from year 2000-2015 using remote sensing. To map forest loss in the study area between year 2000 – 2015, four Land-sat images (Land-sat 8 thematic mapper; Land-sat 7 enhanced thematic; Land-sat 8 operational and Imagery covering four epochs years 2000, 2005, 2010 and 2015 respectively) were downloaded from Image pre-processing was done to correct for atmospheric errors and scan line errors, after which an image subset was done to cut out the extent of open forest, water body and built up areas from the images. Normalized differential vegetation index was calculated from the red and near infra-red bands of the Land-sat images and used to determine carbon-dioxide sequestration in open forest in the study area. Results showed that in year 2000 open forest; water body and built up area covered 49.19%, 13.04% and 37.77% of the study area respectively. In year 2005, open forest water body and built up area covered 45.78%, 13.31% and 40.50% respectively. In year 2010 open forest was 43.81%, water body was 13.39%, and built up area was 42.80%. In year 2015 open forest decreased further to 41.97%, water body was 13.43% and built up area increased to 44.60%. This implies that there was a continuous loss of forest resources in the reserve while built up area increased steadily. Rate of carbondioxide sequestration indicated that for open forest 11.13kg/ha of carbon dioxide sequestrated between 2000 and 2005; 10.66kg/ha between 2005 and 2010 and 10.54kg/ha between 2010 and 2015. This implies that rate of carbon dioxide sequestration for the period under study is on steady decline due to forest loss and upsurge of built up area in Akpaka Forest Reserve. The study recommended Protection, Production and Legal Initiatives as means of preventing and repairing forest loss in the study area among other suggestions.

Keywords: Carbon Sequestration, Environment, forest loss, forest reserve

Impact of Industrial Effluents on Soil Quality of Sudan Savanna Alfisols in Semi-arid Tropical Zone of Nigeria (Published)

With increase in industrialization, threat of industrial pollution has been troubling the human world for many years causing environmental pollution including agricultural soils, which are adversely affected when untreated or partially treated industrial effluents are applied on them as irrigation amendments. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of industrial effluents on the quality of soils irrigated with the effluents in Sharada industrial area by measuring different physico-chemical quality parameters. The soil samples were collected from three different phases of the industrial area and analyzed using standard laboratory procedures. Findings indicated that application of industrial effluents on soil caused changes in the physico-chemical profile of the soil with parameters like pH, organic carbon (OC) , nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), exchangeable sodium (Na) and potassium (K) recording mean values ranging from 6.6-7.2, 1.0-2.2%, 0.1-0.2%, 9.0- 14.0mg/Kg, 0.1-0.5Cmol/Kg and 0.6-0.7Cmol/Kg respectively. These values were different from the normal range of fertile and qualitative soil according to standards, and no significant differences were recorded among the sampling sites (P>0.05). Furthermore, the study revealed that the soil texture was sandy loam and loamy sand, while the cation exchange capacity (CEC), electrical conductivity (EC) exchangeable calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) recorded mean values in the range of 4.6-6.8Cmol/Kg, 0.3-1.0dS/m, 1.6-3.7Cmol/Kg and 1.0-2.0Cmol/Kg in that order with significant variation among the sampling sites (P<0.05) indicating the moderate impact of industrial effluents on the soil quality. Overall, the research findings indicated that Sharada industrial effluents have impacted relatively on the soil quality of the surrounding soils in the area and their application should be discontinued for irrigation unless with careful monitoring and guarded improvement in the quality of the industrial wastewater as well as application of inorganic and organic amendments that will improve the fertility and quality of the soils of the study area.

Keywords: : Irrigation, Environment, Industrial Effluent, Pollution, Soil Quality

Environmental Planning and Management (EPM) As a Strategry for Solving Environmental Problems in Niger Delta Region: A Study of Bonny Island, Rivers State, Nigeria. (Published)

Environmental issues are meant to be operationalized through the formulation of actor-specific environmental actions plans, which define priority action that will convert strategy into practice. The Environmental Planning and Management (EPM) process which is an increasingly popularized strategy of solving the myriads of problems affecting the environment in contemporary world. The study examines the use of  Environmental Planning and Management (EPM) process as a strategy of solving environmental problems in Bonny Island, Rivers State, Nigeria by investigating the perception of the general public on the state of the environment in the area, level of participation of people in compliance to existing environmental strategies, causes of ineffective environmental management in the area and assessing community satisfaction with existing environmental management approach using well structured questionnaires administered to sampled households. Questions were related to socio-economic characteristics of households, willingness to participate by the community in the EPM process, perceived level of environmental degradation in the area, level of compliance of oil and gas companies to environmental laws and the role of Government environment protection agencies in protecting the environment of the study area. The results confirm that the level of damage from oil exploration, gas activities, pollution and pipeline vandalizations is chronic and cumulative, which has resulted to the degradation of the environment, routine of facilities and compliancy to environmental management approaches are not regular, facilities and equipment were found be grossly inadequate therefore proper inspection can not be well carried out,  the community expressed dissatisfaction with the existing environment approach which they attributed to the inability of fully implementing the environmental approach, the community indicated that given the opportunity they are willing to participate in evolving an effective environmental management approach.  Recommendations were made for the effective and efficient application of the EPM process in the study area.

Keywords: Bonny Island, Degradation, Environment, Environmental Planning and Management

Polyhexamethylene Biguanide Hydrochloride: Features and Applications (Published)

Polyhexamethylene biguanide hydrochloride (PHMB) is a chemical biocide which is a polymer utilized in a wide variety of antimicrobial applications. This review provides a comprehensive literature of PHMB features from synthesis methods,mode of action, antimicrobial effects and safety considerations to both humans and environments. Effectiveness against cellular organisms is due to the basic biguanide group attached to a flexible spacer, a hexamethylene group. PHMB is a disinfectant with a broad spectrum of inducing cell death by disrupting cell membrane integrity. It is an environmentally friendly product noncorrosive and nontoxic to both humans and animals. It is used as a preservative in cosmetics, personal care products, fabric softeners, contact lens solutions, hand washes, and more. In cosmetics, the preservation of fruit and vegetables. It is also used to preserve wet wipes; to control odor in textiles; to prevent microbial contamination in wound irrigation and sterile dressings; to disinfect medical/dental utensil and trays, farm equipment, animal drinking water, and hard surfaces for food handling institutions and hospitals; and to deodorize vacuums and toilets. This agent can work at low concentrations with very fast action with a broad spectrum of action in addition of its wide acceptance and exploitation for potential multi-purpose functional use. It will be promising for advanced environmental treatments including food disinfection, water disinfection, surface disinfection, and meet the criteria for an ideal antimicrobial agent.

Keywords: Biguanide, Biocide, Disinfectant, Environment, PHMB, Polyhexamethylene


The application of sophisticated technology in a laissez- faire economy to provide for the diverse needs of ever increasing population led to series of environmental stress and crises. The magnitude and complexity of these environmental problems evoked the raising of alarm from various quarters calling for urgent attention to the myriads of environmental problem issues, if man’s survival will be guaranteed. These alarms created the pressure that later gave rise to environmental management and control discipline and profession. In practical terms, environmental management and control is multi-disciplinary in scope and requires the training of crops of professionals that will be equipped with critical and analytical skills to provide both preventive and corrective measures to address all dimensions of environmental problems. Thus, the environmental and control education aims at training and producing competent personnel that will be intellectually equipped with sufficient and relevant theoretical and technical knowledge as well as skills for dealing with the problems caused by developmental projects and also who will possess the multi-disciplinary perspectives to team up with other professionals to achieve sustainable development in various aspects of human endeavours. Regrettably, it is only 30 out of 107 Universities and other 52 degree/HND/NCE awarding tertiary institutions in Nigeria that offer environmental management and control education. This is abysmally too low and poor which partly explains why environmental problems appear intractable in Nigeria. For sustainable development to become feasible and realizable in Nigeria, environmental education must be made compulsory in all tertiary levels of education as well as in pre-tertiary schools. Environmental management graduates are trained to work in the public and non-public establishments and as well as possess adequate skills to set up their private consultancy firms and become employers of labour.

Keywords: Education, Environment, Management, developmental projects., multi-disciplinary, preventive and corrective measures


The paper examined the municipal solid waste disposal methods and the environmental issues associated with the management of solid waste in Kano Metropolis, Nigeria. Primary data were obtained through administration of structured questionnaires to a random size of population in the areas that have the highest heaps of solid waste on the major streets and open spaces. Oral interviews and field observations were also carried out for holistic and detail assessment of the environment. Secondary data were obtained from desk review method; information on environmental issues resulting from poor management of municipal solid waste were obtained from relevant literatures. The results of the findings clearly show that major streets, several open spaces and even water ways are been used as refuse dump sites. The composition of the municipal solid waste in the city is heterogeneous; it contained both biodegradable and non-biodegradable materials which are mostly e-wastes, plastic and polythene materials. The study also reveals that most of the refuse dumps are left unattended to for a long period. The study further shows that population growth and uncontrolled urban expansion are responsible for the continuous growth of these refuse heaps at the shoulders of the major streets, open spaces and water bodies. There is no organized house to house or street to street collection of the solid waste in some parts of the metropolis. In few areas where large waste bins are provided, they are hardly used by the community. The major environmental issues resulting from improper disposal and poor management of solid waste in Kano metropolis are physical nuisance of the waste to the environment, the solid waste are blown around by winds or rainstorm making the environment dirty, the waste sometimes block drainage channels during rainstorm causing flooding in the metropolis. The heaps of the solid waste serve as good hideouts for reptiles, rodents, and other dangerous insects. The solid waste may decompose to emit methane gas which contributes to climate change. Most of the non-decomposable solid wastes contain harmful chemical elements which have severe health implications. Generally, the study shows that soil, air and water pollution in the study area are caused by both pathogenic and chemical elements from these heaps of solid waste that dot some of the major streets and open spaces. Therefore, the paper recommends that a strong legislation with severe sanction be put in place and they should be a continuous public enlightenment on the danger of municipal waste to the general public. It is also recommended that available market be created for these waste that can be recycled.

Keywords: Biodegradable, Chemical Elements, Electronic Wastes, Environment, Harmful, Management, Metropolis, Non–biodegradable, Refuse Dumps, Solid Wastes


In many regions of the world, the natural environment is sometimes severe. Consequently, many methods of adapting architecture to the natural environment are usually provided by man. Traditional architecture is one of these methods. Various types of these traditional architectural designs are found in West Africa. There are, for example, one-room designs with common toilets, common source of water, sanitation and other facilities. There are also group houses and compounds the characteristics of which reflect the traditions of the various tribes and their family life. Many of the architectural design of these houses reflect the significance of the environment and indicate the need to take advantage of the traditional architecture in modern architecture. In spite of the significance of traditional architecture, particularly for adapting to the environment, not much has been done to examine the characteristics and the need to take the advantage of traditional architecture in modern architecture. This is for example the case in West Africa where, even in rural areas, the present day architecture have done a lot to alienate traditional cultures in designs, and eliminate local skills, making the local artisans obsolete. Also, most available studies and books discuss mainly modern architecture to the neglect of traditional architecture. Thus, “environmental decay” has been increasing at an alarming rate, and the “abuse of the environment” has become responsible for a lot of major ecological imbalances. With modern architecture, and the orientation of development towards the Western model, as well as the neglect of the concept of traditional architecture which, in many cases, is in harmony with nature, and with little emphasis on indigenous resources makes the concept of housing for all a mirage. Thus, the need to create ‘model’ architecture with improved housing facilities using local resources and involving community participation with strong motivation cannot be over-emphasized. In doing this, the first step of a good knowledge of the ‘concept’ and characteristics of traditional architecture is essential. Thus, there is an urgent need to have information on the characteristics and usefulness of traditional architecture. This need is of interest to this book, the purpose of which is to document the characteristics of traditional architecture. The study illustrates these characteristics by using major tribes in West Africa.

Keywords: Adaptation, Architecture, Building Design, Environment, West Africa

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