British Journal of Education (BJE)

EA Journals

Instructional Materials

Social Variables as a Determining Factor for Improved Academic Performance of Students in Social Studies in Nigerian Schools (Published)

This research paper examined the social variables as a determining factor for improved academic performance of students in social studies in Nigerian’s schools. This was informed by ineffective utilization of some variables such as instructional materials, quality assurance control, staff and student’s welfare, the school curriculum and other related school policies. It has been discovered that most of these factors are either inadequate or not effectively utilized towards an improved academic achievement of students in social studies.the paper concludes that the discouraging students’ performance in social studies is dependent upon these social variables. It’s is recommended that for students’ academic performance in social studies to improve,  modern teaching gadgets should be provided, provision for staff and students’ welfare should be enhanced and qualified social studies teachers should be employed.

Keywords: Curriculum, Instructional Materials, Teaching, quality assurance control


This study investigated the problems faced by Secondary School Physics teachers in improvising instructional materials for effective teaching and learning of Physics in Akwa Ibom State of Nigeria. All Physics teachers currently teaching Physics in the state formed the population for the study. This gave the population size of three hundred and ten Physics teachers. Random method of selection was used in selecting 150 (80 male and 70 female) Physics teachers to form the sample for the study. A structured questionnaire called Improvised Physics Instructional Materials Questionnaire (IPIMQ) was used in generating the data for the Study. The instrument had two sections, A and B. Section A sought information on personal data (sex and educational qualifications) of the respondents while Section B sought information on problems faced by Secondary School Physics Teachers in the course of improvising instructional materials. The reliability coefficient of the instrument determined using Crombach Alpha was 0.78. One research question and two research hypotheses were formulated to guide the investigation. Mean and t-test statistics were used in analyzing the data. The findings of the Study revealed the problems faced by Physics teachers during improvisation to include financial constraints, lack of skills and strategies on improvisation, large class size, time constraint, unavailability of tools and lack of exposure on improvisation. The study also showed that these problems faced by teachers were not gender and location sensitive as there was no significant difference in the mean responses of male and female or urban and rural Physics teachers in improvisation of instructional materials. Recommendations were made, among others, that Seminars and workshop on improvisation be organized for Physics teachers in Secondary Schools in Akwa Ibom State by the authorities concerned.

Keywords: Akwa Ibom State, Instructional Materials, Nigeria, Teaching and Learning Physics

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