British Journal of Education (BJE)

EA Journals

Formative assessment

Relationship between Senior High School Teachers’ Knowledge and Practices of Continuous Assessment (Published)

One major concern of stakeholders in education across the world is how to improve students learning outcomes. To address this, a number of researchers have unearthed various factors that affect students’ learning outcomes and recommended ways of addressing these factors to improve students’ learning outcomes. This study is posited on the fact that key among these factors is the effect of teachers’ assessment practices. The study, therefore, sought to investigate the level of high school teachers’ knowledge of how to assess students’ learning and the relationship between their knowledge and how they implement it in assessing students’ learning formatively. A sample of 75 teachers and 750 students, selected from the 10 senior high schools in Southern Ghana participated in the study. Findings from the study showed, among other things, that though teachers have good knowledge of continuous assessment, there was a sharp contrast between this and their classroom practices. Implications of these findings for policy makers are discussed.

Keywords: Continuous Assessment, Formative assessment, teachers’ knowledge, teachers’ practices

Formative Assessment Practices, Attitude and Learning Outcome of Students in Mathematics in Selected Secondary Schools in South-South Nigeria (Published)

The study was conducted to examine the effect of formative assessment practices, and attitude on learning outcome of students in Mathematics in selected secondary schools in south-south Nigeria. Three research questions and hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. The quasi-experimental design was used in the study with a population of all Senor Secondary school three (SS3) students in Mathematics in selected public secondary schools in south-south (Cross River, Rivers and Akwa Ibom States) of Nigeria numbering 21,657. The sample of the study consisted of 541 (2.5%), SS3 students in Mathematics. The proportionate stratified random sampling technique was employed in the study. The instruments for data collection are; the Formative Assessment Practice Questionnaire (FAPQ), Attitude Scale (AS) and Learning Outcome Test in Mathematics (LOTM) which were validated by experts in Mathematics and Measurement and Evaluation. Internal consistency was established with split half reliability method and the index ranged from .78 to .92 respectively.  The stated hypotheses formulated for the study were tested at 0.05 level of significance using Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA).  Findings from the study revealed that there is a significant effect of formative assessment, attitude and gender on learning outcome of students in Mathematics.

Keywords: Formative assessment, Learning Outcome, Mathematics, Practices, South-south Nigeria., attitude


Evaluation of students is an integral part of teaching and learning in Social Studies in the Colleges of Education in Ghana and is beneficial to both students and tutors if use formatively. This could be achieved if, tutors follow the laid down procedures in administering formative assessment in their colleges.This study adopted a case study research design. The study was carried out in three Colleges of Education in the Central Region of Ghana. The data were used together to form one case. Both the Tutors and the Colleges were purposively and conveniently selected for the study. Interviews and classroom observation were used. The semi-structured interview guide and the structured classroom observation setting checklists were administered to nine (9) Social Studies tutors. It was found that evaluation in the classroom motivates tutor-student relationship in formative assessment but it was observed that most of the tutors were not using concrete evaluation feedbacks. Clarifying and sharing learning intentions and criteria for success foster effective classroom discussions and learning tasks in formative assessment. Tutors agreed that the use of Formative Assessment Classroom Techniques (FACTs) is an integral part of teaching and learning

Keywords: Assessment, Evaluation. Students, Formative assessment, Learning, Social Studies

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