International Journal of Small Business and Entrepreneurship Research (IJSBER)

EA Journals


Entrepreneurial Orientation Dimensions and Profitability Nexus: Evidence from Micro Enterprises in the Retail Sector in a Developing Country (Published)

This study examined the relationship between entrepreneurial orientation dimensions (proactivity, risk-taking and innovation) and profitability of micro enterprises in the retail sector in a developing country. The data for the study were obtained from micro enterprise owners who operate retail businesses in Madina-Accra in Ghana. The study adopted a cross-sectional survey design, and employed quantitative technique in the collection and analysis of the data. The researchers used convenient and purposive sampling techniques to select 110 research participants for the study. The study employed descriptive statistics, Pearson’s correlation and hierarchical regression to analyse the data. The study found a significant positive effect of proactiveness and risk-taking on profitability of micro enterprises that operate in the retail sector in Ghana. However, no relationship was found between entrepreneurial innovativeness and profitability. The implications of these findings and recommendations for research, practice and practice were also discussed.

Keywords: Developing Country, Entrepreneurial Orientation, Micro Enterprises, Profitability, Retail Sector


Indonesia’s banking sector is expected to improve the performance management productivity positive direction (in other words the emphasis on earnings quality and performance should be improved), and making it into the (Association of Southeast Asia Nations) ASEAN free market in 2020 and became the largest bank in ASEAN.The aim of this study are to determine the factors that affect income smoothing on the National Private Commercial Foreign Exchange Banks that listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX). Variables used in this study are the firm size, profitability and financial leverage. Eckel Index (1981) was used to measure income smoothing, where net profit after tax as income smoothing object.The sample was taken by random sampling of 10 private foreign exchange national banks that listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX) during the years 1/1/2009 to 31/12/2013 with a sub-sample of 50 financial reports. Testing is done through panel data analysis technique with simultaneous test (F test) and partial test (t test) was used to identify factors that affect income smoothing.The results showed that income smoothing is done by most of the National Private Commercial Foreign Exchange Bank which listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX). The test results result are variable size of the company, profitability and financial leverage simultaneously significant effect on income smoothing. Partial test results are that the variable size of the company, profitability and leverage financial has effect on income smoothing.

Keywords: : Company Size, Financial Leverage, Profitability, smoothing earnings


The objective of this study was to identify profitable and viable SMEs which could form a basis for an economic empowerment programme for the restive unemployed youths in the Niger Delta Region. The focus of the study is on SMEs which are registered with the co-ordinating agency of government and are therefore considered bankable by financial institutions. A survey of SMEs was conducted in four major urban centres of Aba in Abia State, Uyo in Akwa Ibom State, Benin in Edo State and Port Harcourt in Rivers State and their environs. The cities were purposively selected because they are known centres of economic activities around which industrial establishments and SMEs cluster in the region. The SMEs were registered by government agencies, under eleven categories, with unequal number of enterprises. One hundred enterprises were purposively selected in each of the four centres, for a total of four hundred, ensuring that all enterprise types, in each category, were represented. Applying the simple analytical tools of total factor productivity, net income (NI) and rate of return on total investment (RRTI), the ten most viable SMEs were identified for the states as follows: Abia; metal fabrication, garments, interlocking tiles, concrete electric poles, printing works, saw mills, metal construction, paints, air conditioner and refrigerator repairs and restaurant; Akwa Ibom, paints, oil palm processing, garment/fashion, furniture works, leather bags, bakery and confectionery, metal construction, electronic repairs, brick making and wood arts. Edo, Auto electric, air conditioner and refrigeration, fish production, candle production, oil palm processing, auto mechanics, wood arts, metal works, poultry production and garment/fashion. Rivers: Hair dressing, fish production, metal works, oil palm processing, foot wears, aluminum and glass fabrication, cassava processing, air conditioner and refrigeration, block moulding, restaurant.



Keywords: Niger-Delta, Productivity, Profitability, Rate of Return, SMEs, Youths

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