International Journal of Sociology and Anthropology Research (IJSAR)

EA Journals


Fundamentals of Sociological Theorizing: Establishing a Nexus between Abstract Theoretical Reasoning and Empirical Research on Boko Haram (Published)

This paper examines the fundamentals of sociological theorizing with the aim of providing niches for the establishment of a nexus between abstract reasoning and empirical research in sociology that is theoretically science driven. To achieve this objective, the paper identified a key problem of post and undergraduate students being faced with a demanding situation while seeking knowledge in sociological theorizing. There would appear to be an explicit and palpable deficit in theoretical know-how on the supply side of knowledge deliverables to link theory to practice. What contributes to this problem, perhaps, is the lackadaisical attitude towards theory on the part of the students coupled with a quest for paper qualifications for the sake of getting employment rather than to demonstrate practical contributions that inform the discovery of new social phenomena to explain new social conditions. This paper raised a number of compelling questions as brief descriptions on the way to go, which, although still a work in progress, will contribute significantly to solving the problem and adding value to existing literature on sociological theorizing. This paper, ab initio, addressed the imperatives of sociological analysis of concepts, variables, facts, propositions and hypothesis in sociological theorizing. Types of theories were examined and handled within the classifications of micro and macro; grand and second-middle range theories, which were analyzed in relation to the four crucial components that are central to sociological theorizing. The five theoretical perspectives were labelled in this paper as the ‘Five Alive’ grand sociological theoretical perspectives. To further deepen the perspective on sociological theorizing, this paper tried to exemplify abstract versus empirical research and its implication on the contemporary social phenomenon of Boko Haram. Various methods and logics needed in sociological theorizing were presented. The space of eco-systemic evolutionism as both theory and method in the understanding and explaining of most sociological theories and the crucial role of thinking and reasoning in evolutionism in relation to sociological theorizing have also been stressed in this paper

Keywords: Abstract vs. Empirical Research, Boko Haram, Inductive vs. Deductive Methods, Method vs. Data, Social Phenomena, Sociological Theorising, Theoretical Perspectives, Theoretical Postulates, Theory

Crime, Deviance and Delinquency:Diversifying Theoretical Narratives and Transition towards Empirical Research on Boko Haram (Published)

This paper examines crime, deviance and delinquency and their diversifying theoretical narratives; the objective is to provide an empirical basis for appropriate frame work to allow for better explanations of the phenomena in the contemporary society. In order to achieve this objective, the paper stresses the importance of empirical research by examining abstract theoretical postulates on crime, deviance and delinquency.  This is achieved by employing a modified methodological approach to the research design with crucial elements of qualitative research, as content analysis are employed in integrated forms at different stages during this research. The paper discusses differential analysis of juvenile delinquency, young person’s offenders and adult criminal typology. It also looks at the apparatus to gauge crime, deviance and delinquency and its social relations to the basics about crime, deviance and delinquency, to what it means to a criminologist, other academics and to a layman. As a corollary to this, a new sociological and/or criminological definition of crime, deviance and delinquency is presented as finding during the cause of this research. More so, in order to have deeper understanding of the phenomena under review, diversifying theoretical narratives from socio-psychobiological dimensions to crime of the Boko Haram suicide phenomenon has been contextualized while Classical Social Tripodal Model provides thrust for such empirical research. Furthermore,  in order to have a suitable frame work for the  analysis of the phenomena of crime, deviance and delinquency, different theoretical perspectives are reviewed ranging from the Mertonian Anomie Perspectives, Albert Cohen’s Delinquent Boys; Southerland’s Differential Association to  Concentric Zone Perspectives of  Shaw and McKay; Social Disorganization and/or Cultural Transmission and Claward and Ohlin’s Differential Opportunity Structural Theoretical Perspective were reviewed including the Marxian political economy perspective to crime, deviance and delinquency. The biological and/or constitutional perspectives pioneered by Cesare Lombroso’s Theory of ‘Atavistic Stigmata’ and Sheldon’s ‘Theory of Somatotypes’ are also discussed.   Following this, within the biological school, the paper examines the XY Chromosomes model, heredity versus crime, deviance and delinquency with a view to setting a framework that would allow for better explanation of the nature of crime, deviance and delinquency in the contemporary social milieu.  The research concludes with an examination of the premise of psycho-dynamic or psycho-analytic frame work to crime deviance and delinquency.

Keywords: Boko Haram, Crime, Delinquency, Deviance, Empirical Research, Theory


The thesis of this research was the postulation of a counter insurgency model called Social Tripodal Insurgency Model (STIM) that placed insurgent recruits, especially the radical Boko Haram of North Eastern Nigeria, in a theoretical position for study. The Model was postulated to establish nexus among Knowledge, Reality and Society for majorly describing the Boko Haram as a phenomenon which characterised the insurgency in the region. STIM, as one of many solutions that can be applied to contain the Boko Haram menace, used a correctional and rehabilitative approach, offering 7 critical issues in its tenets and principles, suggesting Engagement, Replacement and Improvement as key elements. The Social Tripodal Model of Insurgency blamed Boko Haram recruits’ background knowledge on poorly conceived complex cultural synthesis and differentiation of knowledge, as the study gives readers an insight into the understanding of the insurgents in relation to their socialisation process. Their antisocial behaviour in staging Jihad (unholy war) against the society was explained from the perspective of ‘Reality’ as Boko Haram considered suicide missions, acts of terrorism, Jihad, assassinations, guerrilla warfare etc as real and sacrosanct in furtherance of their course. Such antisocial actions, STIM argued, have severe effects on social structure and relationships in the Nigerian society, particularly the north eastern states. The research method employed in the construction of STIM was Quantitative Research Method and a review of related literature on differential models of insurgency, counterinsurgency and terrorism was also presented Hypothesises were generated, tested, validated and data pitfalls were effectively covered by Structured Interviews with pre-jihad Boko Haram members, clerics, law enforcement officers and a cross-section of the population in the study area.. One of the outcomes of the hypothesis tested confirmed that ‘there is significant positive correlation between poor upbringing (socialisation) and its tendency to create insurgent recruits’. For instance, wrongly conceived Ibn-Thaimiya doctrine intertwined with political Madrassas was synthesized to suit their dogmatic evolutionary commitment to give a different interpretation of Islam as inspired by Mohammed Yusuf, the erstwhile leader of the insurgent group. The Social Tripodal Insurgency Model is significant as it outlines control channels that can be adopted to check the Boko Haram insurgency in North Eastern Nigeria as part of government counter-insurgency strategies.

Keywords: Boko Haram/Jihad, Ibn-Thaimiya, Social Tripodal Insurgency Model ‘STIM’, Theory, Unholy War

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