International Journal of Fisheries and Aquaculture Research (IJFAR)

EA Journals

Human Health

The Pros of Swimming for Human Health and Recreational Fisheries in the Blue Economy: Review (Published)

This review examines the pros of swimming for human health and recreational fisheries in the blue economy. It explores the various benefits of both activities and how they contribute to economic growth, environmental sustainability, and social well-being. The article also discusses the challenges and opportunities associated with promoting these activities within the blue economy framework. Swimming as one of the most popular modes of physical activity, it confers significant physical health benefits for both healthy individuals and those with disease; these health benefits extend across the entire life-course –as it has presented evidence that demonstrates favourable effects of aquatic exercise from foetus through to the frail elderly. There is a copious data considering aquatic exercise per se, there is relatively much less exploring the effects of swimming as a unique activity. It is imperative that this is addressed in future research, particularly given the compelling evidence presented that swimmers demonstrate lower all-cause mortality rates, and reduced incidence of falls in later life. The unique nature of the aquatic environment as a medium for exercise and physical activity has been comprehensively described. What is evident is that water-based exercise can confer a number of specific advantages, as compared to land-based exercise. As an environment that offers reduced weight-bearing stress, higher humidity levels, decreased heat load and a greater margin of therapeutic safety in terms of falls-risk, swimming/aquatic exercise is extremely well-placed to safely and effectively meet the needs of a wide-range of individuals, in both the treatment and prevention of physical health issues. Water-based exercise prescription should be a key consideration for health care clinicians and commissioners as we tap into the blue economy wealth.

Keywords: Environmental sustainability, Human Health, economic growth, recreational fisheries, social well-being., swimming

Nutritional Value, and Heavy Metal Contents of Fish from the Lower River Niger at Agenebode, Edo State, Nigeria (Published)

Fish constitutes a vital component of human diets due to their rich nutritional compositions. They serve as a remarkable source of proteins, vitamins, and fatty acids, which are indispensable for the effective growth and development of humans. The need to explore the nutritional compositions of various species of fish in different water bodies becomes paramount. Presently, consumer concern is not just on food’s nutritional value but also on the safety level. Environmental contamination by heavy metals has become an issue of pressing concern in recent times. Heavy metals, due to their ubiquitous nature, are found in various water bodies as they are released from various anthropogenic activities. This work investigated the proximate compositions, mineral contents, and heavy metals concentrations of four different species of fish (P. annectens, L. niloticus, G. niloticus, and H. niloticus) collected from the lower Niger at Agenebode using standard procedures. The highest protein contents were in Gymnarchus niloticus (37.32%), while the least was in Heterotis niloticus (20.41%). Protopterus annectens had the highest carbohydrate content (34.55%), while Heterotis niloticus had the least (12.24%). The highest lipid content (14.41%) was in Gymnarchus niloticus. The highest concentration of potassium was 21.00 ppm. The concentrations of heavy metals in ppm ranged from 0.01 – 1.4 (Cd), 0.07 – 2.89 (Pb), 0.02 – 16.4 (Hg), 0.88 – 5.1 (Cu) and 1.2 – 8.23 (Zn). The concentrations of Hg, Cd and Pb in some of the samples investigated were higher than the permissible limits based on international standards. There is a pressing need for further study focusing on various species of animals and plants in the area due to the alarming contents of these metals; remedial measures could also be ensured for safety.

Keywords: Human Health, crude protein, lipid content, nutritional value, trace metals

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