International Journal of English Language Teaching (IJELT)

EA Journals


A Case Study On the Adoption of Digital Storytelling in ESL Classrooms to Induce Learning Motivation Among School Children in Rural Kelantan, Malaysia (Published)

This paper discusses the adoption of digital storytelling (DST) in ESL classrooms within rural settings in Malaysia. The general aim of this study is to explore how and to what extent engagement in DST activities would induce learning motivation towards ESL, both from the learners’ and instructors’ points of view. The study employed a case study approach, whereby semi-structured interviews and non-participant observations were conducted to gather qualitative data. 35 pupils and seven ESL teachers were involved. The results revealed that the pupils perceived DST activities as fun and interesting and would like to experience it again as they concurred that their learning motivation towards ESL was induced after being involved in DST-related activities. The teachers’ responses were in parallel with the pupils’ responses. Factors affecting pupils’ engagement and participation during ESL lessons as well as factors affecting rural teachers’ preference in adopting DST were also comprehended. The study provides insights to the education stakeholders in finding ways to meet the needs of rural school communities in Malaysia.

Keywords: Interest, Rural, digital storytelling, language learning motivation, second language anxiety.

Xenophobia in Iraqi EFL Learning Context (Published)

This study is an attempt to investigate Iraqi EEL learners’ conception of xenophobia and whether it has a negative effect on their learning English as a foreign language. The study hypothesizes that: (1) it is fair to speculate that xenophobia has been at least partially responsible for hindering deep-level learning and students who undergo xenophobia are likely to be pessimistic as regards the foreign language, (2) learners’ attitudes toward English as a foreign language differs depending on whether they are rural or urban, (3) the disposition of female learners towards the term xenophobia differs in comparison to that of male learners. To this end, a questionnaire is administered to 50 Iraqi undergraduate EFL learners at the University of Babylon/College of Education for Human Sciences/Department of English during the academic year (2016-2017) by which students were asked to report on their perception and interpretation of the term xenophobia.

Keywords: EFL Learners’, Gender, Rural, Urban, xenophobia


The aim of this mixed method research is to find out positive changes in learning and behaviour of the rural students of the nursery class in the government schools at Tehsil Jaranwala district Faisalabad province Punjab Pakistan, by the use of motivational expressions within the context of behavioral perspective of Skinner’s (1957) model of reinforcement. The research makes hypothesis that the ELT teachers in government schools at primary level in Pakistan use such techniques and strategies that do not motivate the students in learning English as a second language (ESL) and the young learners especially in rural context are less interested to learn English because teachers do not motivate the students in the class. The researcher took a nursery class for 37 days and tried to motivate the students to learn English and establish their interest in studies through different motivational expressions. Moreover, a survey questionnaire, consisting of 13 close ended questions and 07 open-ended questions was distributed among 28 male and female teachers of different schools to know their views and comments regarding motivation and use of motivational expressions. The results were presented quantitatively in the form of tables, graphs, frequencies and percentages. The findings of the research results show that more than 75 % teachers agree to the view that there should be motivation in the learners and the use of different motivational strategies, for example motivational expressions, enhance the students’ interest in learning. Moreover, the classroom teaching and the questionnaire results show that students become more motivated towards learning English language when they are positively reinforced in the class. The results can be used as key for seeing the reasons behind the failure of the students at schools as well their misconduct in the society and can be a key to make improvements in both the areas.

Keywords: English as a second language (ESL), English language teaching (ELT), Motivation, Pakistan, Rural, Students, behaviourism, reinforcement

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