International Journal of Development and Economic Sustainability (IJDES)

EA Journals


Analysis of Risk and Risk Management Strategies: The Case of Vegetable Producer Farmers in North Eastern Ethiopia (Published)

In Ethiopia, smallholders’ farmers and agricultural cooperatives produce vegetable crops in various agro-ecological zones across the country through the commercial initiative. Vegetable productions take place in a highly biophysical and economic environment, which poses various types of risks. As follows, this study identifies measures and analyses the key sources of risks in vegetable production, based on vegetable farmers’ perceptions. A simple random sampling technique was used in the selection of 394 smallholder vegetable farmers in North Eastern Ethiopia. Primary data collected through structured questionnaires and secondary data were preferentially used. Data collected were analysed using frequency distribution, arithmetic mean, and likert scales. This study recommends the training for vegetable farmers on risk management mechanisms, price supports mechanisms, providing the required infrastructure and the use of vegetable varieties that tolerates for natural disasters and pests/disease resistance.

Keywords: Risk, Risk Analysis, Risk Management, Vegetable production


The research study focusing on determinants of return and risk performance in the GCC sukuk market structure is sparse. Therefore, present study attempts to identify different types of risks embedded in sukuk structure, to determine the impact of different types of risks on return of sukuk and to explore and analyze the relationship between market risk, credit risk, operational risk, liquidity risk and sukuk returns in GCC market. This research covers nine years sample period beginning from January 2005 to June 2013. The 2282 daily observations of adjusted closed values of each index has downloaded from websites of Nasdaq Dubai sukuk market. This study used various methods o analyze the data. Results of this study reveal that Nasdaq sukuk index sectorial basis in GCC found that 91% of the GCC sukuk returs were explains by GSKI, 92% of the GCC sukuk returns were explained by GSKC and 93% of the GCC corporate sukuk returns were explained by GSKF. This variance are due to maturity risk, Shari’ah compliance risk , liquidity risk, reinvestment risk , interest rate risk, credit risk, inflation risk and dollar rate risk. Thereby the objectives set in this study proved the relationship between total return and different type of risks. The implications of this study, limitations and areas for further research are also discussed.

Keywords: Market, Performance, Return, Risk, Structure, Sukuk

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