International Journal of Dentistry, Diabetes, Endocrinology and Oral Hygiene (IJDDEOH)

EA Journals


Hepato and Reno Protective Effect of the Methanolic Leaf Extract of Punica Granatum L. On Ccl4 Exposed Wistar Albino Rats (Published)

This study therefore evaluated the hepato and reno protective effect of the methanolic leaf extract of Punica granatum against carbon tetrachloride (CCL4) in wistar albino rats. In acute toxicity test, methanolic leaf extract of Punica granatum were administered orally using rats of both sexes weighing between 80-200g. fourty (40) albino rats were divided into eight (8) groups of five (5) rats each (A-H). groups A, B and C served as normal, negative and positive control groups repectively, groups D and E served as treatment groupsat doses of 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg body weights respectively, groups F, G and H are extract groups at 200mg/kg, 400mg/kg and 800mg/kg body weights respectively. In sub-acute study, the wistar albino rats were daily administered orally with methanolic leaf extract of Punica granatum at doses of 200, 400 and 800mg/kg body weights for 28days. They were weighed on the first day and after every 7days during treatment with the extract. Signs of toxicity were also observed after 28days. The rats were sacrificed and blood samples taken for full biochemical and haematological assessment and a histopathology of the liver and kidney. These assessments were carried out using different standard scientific methods described. No death was recorded within 24hours after oral administration at extract dose of 5000mg/kg body weight in acute toxicity (LD50). In the sub-acute study, the extract did not exhibit any significant difference (P˂0.05) on haemoglobin in all the tested doses. This study revealed that the administration of CCL4 elevated serum levels of ALAT (151.25±5.25), ASAT (235.25±27.37), ALP (45.45±0.56), urea (47.22±6.10) and creatinine (1.61±0.17) whereas levels of albumin (15.40±0.05) and electrolytes (Na+, K and HCO3) were decreased. The extract ameliorated the detrimental effects of CCL4 and corrected all examined biomarkers toward the control values where ALAT (122.33±6.36), ASAT (198.33±1.33), ALP (34.10±5.40), urea (22.82±2.32) and creatinine (0.74±0.08) whereas levels of albumin (21.04±0.22) and electrolytes (Na+, K and HCO3) at treatment group 200mg/kg. Treatment with extract at 400mg/kg body weight resulted in even more significant decrease in the elevated serum levels and increased levels in the parameters observed. Weights of internal organs (liver and kidney) were also recorded. Data was analysed and expressed as mean ±SD and statistically analysed using ANOVA with SPSS. Histopathological studies revealed no abnormalities in liver and kidney in treated Rats. The liver tissue displayed normal hepatocytes without any enlargement in sinusoidal vein, central vein, and portal triad in all treated groups compared to control (Plate 1). Kidney micrograph revealed normal architecture of glomerulus and Bowman’s capsules with no degeneration, necrosis, or inflammation (Plate 2). Thus, histological evaluation indicated that the extract did not have any adverse effect on morphology of the tissues and these observations supported the biochemical results mentioned above. The present study concluded that methanolic leaf extract of Punica granatum plays a protective role against CCL4 induced liver and kidney damage in rats.

Keywords: CCL4, LD50, Punica Granatum, biochemical parameter, hematological parameter, histopathological parameter

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