Herders Insurgency and Federalism in Nigeria (Published)
The paper is on Herders Insurgency and Federalism in Nigeria. The North Central of Nigeria has been griped with Herdsmen insurgency, the problem of insecurity that have almost affected the Federal system of government in Nigeria, were unity in diversity is no longer seen as hallmark for forming a federal state. The main objective of the study is to investigate causes and effects of Herders insurgency and its implication on Federalism in Nigeria. The Study employed secondary sources of data collection, using theoretical framework of conflict theory as an analytical tool. One major finding is that, Herders insurgency is due to the influence of Boko Haram, which has it negative implication for the Co-ordinate existence of Nigeria Federalism. We therefore, recommend restructuring of the Federal System and a transparent conflict resolution means by the state, to encourage trust and confidence among the federating units, for national integration and unity.
Transitional societies face a myriad of problems which include incessant conflicts. Some scholars and international financial institutions believed that neoliberal economic growth and policies in support of them would reduce poverty and end conflicts. While not disputing the role of economic growth in a country’s development, this paper takes the view that a holistic approach that recognizes good governance can do more to promote sustainable peace and development. The methodology for this paper was content analysis of official documents, articles and other written sources. The paper observes that the absence of good governance has provided a fertile ground for some of these conflicts to emerge such as insurrections, insurgencies, and general insecurity of lives and property. It concludes that a developmental model that takes cognizance of this can provide the best option for emerging societies in need of lasting peace.
The period between 2003 and 2009 witnessed an intensification of military insurgency and a dangerous degeneration of the conflict in the Niger Delta of Nigeria. The attacks on the oil production facilities by insurgent groups, sabotage by criminal syndicates and a flourishing kidnapping industry had transformed the Niger Delta from a region of political and social instability into a virtual war zone. Oil production had declined by over a million barrels, to about 1.6 million barrels per day. Major oil companies started relocating or shutting down their facilities from the region as the violence, which eventually spread to the other parts of the country could not be repressed by the heavily armed Joint Task Force (JTF) of the Nigerian Military. The implication of the crisis for the political and economic survival of Nigeria is believed to have propelled the Yar’adua administration in mid-2009 to offer ‘amnesty’ to the militants as part of a negotiated process of ending the insurgency in the region, while the issues in the conflict were being addressed by the government. This novel and unprecedented strategy was and still remains controversial but many agree that the problem of insurgency in the region was reasonably contained for several years following the offer of amnesty. This paper is an attempt to analyze the relevance of this policy as a negotiation strategy and a conflict management tool that can be used for future interventions in similar conflicts within the country and across the continent.
Weaker Sex’ As Aggressor: Suicide Bombings and Strategic Logic of Gender Mainstreaming in Nigeria’s Boko Haram Terrorism (Published)
This essay is about the current wave of suicide bombings in Nigeria; a phenomenon hitherto alien to the country. The increasing rate of female suicide terrorists raises more curiosity among gender/security scholars and the womenfolk in general. Though a noble concept in its original context and application, gender mainstreaming has become a useful policy option for the terrorist organisation to pursue their objectives in Northern Nigeria. Thus, the popular idea of propagating women as a weaker sex seems to have evaporated with the reality of integrating a gender perspective into all stages of terrorist organisation’s deadly activities, particularly in an African country. Why has it become more advantageous for terrorist organizations to use women to support or execute terrorist activities? This essay examines the concept of gender mainstreaming within the context of terrorist operations, focusing on mode of recruitment and indoctrination and the Boko Haram’s strategic logic behind the use of female bombers. The implication of this trend on the Nigerian state and gender stereotyping is also analysed.