Analysis of the Application of International Humanitarian Law in United Nations Mission in Mali (Published)
The whole essence of International Humanitarian Law (IHL) is to reduce the impact of armed conflicts on humanity. The application of IHL in UN is mainly hinged on the Observance by United Nations forces of international humanitarian law. This paper analysed the application of IHL by the United Nations Mission in Mali (MINUSMA). The research problem is that the application of IHL by MINUSMA troops instead of assisting the peace process has been used by some of the non-state armed groups in the armed conflict as a weak point to attack more civilians being protected by the troops and even the peacekeepers themselves, inflicting more casualties on them. The objective of the research is to highlight those areas that make the UN troops more vulnerable to the non-state armed groups’ attacks by the application of IHL with a view to suggesting solutions. Doctrinal and teleological research methods were used in the work. Doctrinal through consulting primary and secondary legal authorities and teleological from the experience of the author as a former Force Legal Adviser of the mission. The paper found among others that the application of IHL in the mission is lopsided in the sense that no one checks the non-state armed groups who do not respect the law. There are also different legal jurisdictions of the troops which contribute to unequal application of the law by all troops. The paper recommended among others, full implementation of peace enforcement by the mission and enhancement of pre-deployment training on IHL for peacekeepers.
Citation: Emmanuel Onyekachi Ugwu (2021) Analysis of the Application of International Humanitarian Law in United Nations Mission in Mali, Global Journal of Politics and Law Research, Vol.9, No.6, pp.33-46
The Right of Citizens to Keep and Bear Guns: A Violation of the Article 3 and 25 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights- Study Case of USA, South Africa, France and India-Recommendations to United Nations Based on China’s Experience (Published)
This article raises the issue of the right of citizens to keep and bear guns. The right of citizens to keep and bear guns is the right conferred by governments to people to own a gun for the purpose of self-defense. However, for more than two decades, this right has become a tool of violation of human rights across the world, justified by a high rate of gun related deaths, violence and gun delinquency. More than two hundred thousand people die by private guns every year around the world, either by homicide or suicide. Amnesty International talks about a human right crisis, putting the life of seven billion of people in danger, threatening global security and peace, and causing serious consequences on the socioeconomic life of the countries, in violation of the Article 3 and 25 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR). Based on the case of USA, South Africa, France and India, this article shows the consequences that this legislation causes on the humanity, demonstrates the efficiency of the China’s gun policy and recommends to United Nations to require to State members to abolish the right of citizens to guns following China’s experience, and to establish a world day against the right of citizens to guns.