Unemployment Rate, Gender Inequality and Economic Growth in Nigeria “A Short-Run Impact Analysis” (Published)
This paper examines the short-run impact of gender inequality (proxy by primary and secondary school enrollment) and economic growth (real gross domestic product) on unemployment rate in Nigeria, and also the study determines how much of the forecast error variance of unemployment can be explained by exogenous shocks from variables (gender inequality, economic growth, and population growth rate). Thus, the study using Engel Granger Error Correction Model and Dynamic Stochastic Variance Decomposition Model on a time series data collected from Central Bank of Nigeria Statistical Bulletin. The error correction results in both model 1 and model 2 are robust and consistent with their signs; the impact of gender inequality is positive in both short run models, but significant only in model 1 before the control variables were introduced. Again, the variance decomposition result indicates that gender Inequality emits the highest impulse on the rate of unemployment at 34.735% on average of the ten periods. While economic growth has a negative impact on the rate of unemployment for the two models and exerted only 8.438% impulse on average. The variance decomposition results also showed that unemployment rate transmitted on average of 78.453% impulse on itself for the 10periods under review. Exchange rate, inflation rate, and gross capital formation emitted 28.68%, 10.78%, and 6.81% respectively on average on unemployment rate. Finally, population growth rate transmitted 5.59% impulse on unemployment. There is a long run relationship between the variables and the speed of adjustment towards equilibrium is 52%. Thus, we conclude that gender inequality is a strong factor of unemployment and policy makers and government should embark on developing laws that will reduce/eradicate gender disparity in Nigeria.
Striving To Become an Entrepreneurial University to Bridge the Gap between Knowing and Doing: A Study on Al-Zaytoonah Universiy of Jordan (Published)
In the age of technology and knowledge communities, labor and capital are no longer considered the main production factors. Knowledge and human capital are becoming exceedingly important in strengthening the economic growth and development. Universities are one of the leading resources for knowledge generation. Research is considered one of the pillars universities rely on promoting its faculty, renewing its license or even gaining international accreditation. With all published researches, a gap between this knowledge and practicing it is becoming increasingly noticeable. This gap is called the Knowing-Doing-Gap. To reduce this gap, researchers and universities worked on setting a framework to ensure that part of the knowledge generated is applied and practiced in the market. Such universities are called “Entrepreneurial Universities”. This paper explores the definition of entrepreneurial universities and the conditions for becoming an entrepreneurial university (on both macro and micro levels). Furthermore, the paper sheds light on the steps taken by Al-Zaytoonah University of Jordan striving to become an entrepreneurial university through bridging the gap between knowledge and application. The paper answers the following question: “What steps is Al-Zaytoonah taking to address the knowing-doing-gap?”