Global Journal of Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences (GJAHSS)

EA Journals


Adjustment Strategies of Widows to Widowhood Stress In Rivers State, Nigeria (Published)

This study investigated the various adjustment strategies employed by widows in coping with widowhood stress in Rivers State, Nigeria. Descriptive survey design was adopted for the study. Two research questions and one hypothesis guided the conduct of the study at 0.05 alpha levels. A sample of 370 widows in Rivers State was drawn from the population through proportional stratified random sampling technique. Two instruments namely; Stress Level Scale for Widows (SLSW) and Questionnaire for Widows Adjustment Strategies (QWAS), both developed by the researcher were used for data collection. Data were analysed with mean, standard deviation and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Hypothesis was tested at 0.05 level of significance and the statistical package known as SPSS for widows was employed for the analyses. Results showed that; all the eight adjustment strategies (problem solving, cognitive restructuring, express emotion, social support, problem avoidance, wishful thinking, self-criticism and social withdrawal) are adopted by widows in ameliorating widowhood stress; ethnic group of widows’ influences their adjustment strategies to widowhood stress. Based on the findings of this work, three appropriate recommendations were made.

Keywords: Adjustment, Rivers State, Strategies., Stress, Widowhood


The study investigated teaching strategies in business education for sustaining information and communication technology learning in the Niger Delta. Two research questions were posed to guide the study and one hypothesis was formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance. A total of 245 lecturers were studied in the institutions that offers business education within the Niger Delta. There was no sample and sampling techniques for the study and so the study observed a purposive design, since the entire population was used for the study. Data for the study was collected through an instrument (questionnaire) named Teaching Strategies in Business Education for Sustaining Information and Communication Technology Learning in the Niger Delta Questionnaire (TSBESICTLNDQ). The TSBESICTLNDQ was a modified four point Likert scale, designed as very effective to not effective. Test-retest method was used to test the reliability of the items with face and content validity. The validity was done by twenty five (25) lecturers other than those used for the study and a reliability co-efficient of 0.78 was obtained. Mean rating and standard deviation was used to analyse the research questions and t-test for large group mean was used to test the hypothesis. Findings revealed that teaching strategies adopted by lecturers in Business Education Department are effective strategies for sustaining ICT learning. Not all lecturers teaching ICT adopts the strategies in business education for effective learning that is the reason why most lecturers do not build upon the strategies they already know to sustain information and communication technology learning in classroom as a result of their inability to adapt to the strategies that can assist them to be effective in classroom setting. Based on the findings, discussions and conclusions drawn, recommendations made amongst others were that university administrators in various institutions should organize workshops and seminars on teaching strategies in business education for sustaining ICT learning in their institutions. Heads of department who adopts the teaching strategies in business education for sustaining information and communication technology learning should sensitize others on the effectiveness of the strategies in teaching and learning

Keywords: Business Education, Information and Communication Technology, Learning, Niger-Delta, Strategies., Sustaining, Teaching

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