The trajectory of ecocritical hermeneutics is calibrated into phases. The phases, labeled as “waves” is not a strict consecutive sequence of one wave after another. It is a stretch of overlapping phases in the disciplinary development of the field. The perceptions of the waves are premised on the changing dynamics of nature in relation to human activities. Works that constituted the zero wave showed ecocritical hermeneutics suspected to be literary before the word “Eco criticism” was coined in 1978. The first wave rooted in deep ecology enjoins nature preservation and protection. If advocated the static stability of nature and its dialectical relationship with man. It privileged the Universalist perception of nature and the focus on nature writing/non-fiction texts in the United States of America, which accounted for the narrowness of the phase. The perception of the environment beyond the “ natural” consequent upon technological development and urbanization, thus, broadening the re-theorising of nature to incorporate vestiges of nature in cities and texts not necessarily interested in the natural environment set forth the phase of second wave. The wave creates awareness of ecological despoilation and the disproportionate effect of environment pollution on certain races (environmental injustice); and the gendered view that it is nature as women and nature of women to be exploited and subdued (ecofeminism). In the third wave, ethnic and national literatures are considered in view of their particularities and broadening beyond their geopolitical boundaries to attain global spectrum as they explore the environmental underpinning of every facets of man’s endeavour. This paper posits that since the essence of the changing phases is to avert the apocalyptic direction of the world, scholars are to engage their literary sensitivity to locate their efforts appropriately in any of the waves of the field to engender sustained mutual constitutiveness of man and nature.
This article explores the broad ecocritical perspectives represented in De lisser’s Jane’s Career (1914). The study is located in the environmental and cultural histories of the Caribbean. It evocates the interrelationships between nature and culture based on the broader view of the concept of ‘environment’ by the second wave ecocritics to make the theory applicable to urban setting. It enables ecocriticism to place human culture in relation to the urban natural world as it goes beyond the nature-culture divide to the ways man and nature are harmoniously constitutive in an environment (built and unbuilt). This is, the environmental thoughts and actions of the characters are interpreted in relation to the exploitation of nature and women, and also, the harmonious coexistence of man with nature. It is discovered through the examination of the nature-culture interrelationship that environmentality is a feature of urban settlement. The analysis done using that tens touches issues of colonialism, environmental, ecofeminism and identity formation in the Caribbean
The Study Of The Phenomenon Of “Mystifying Russian Soul” Within The Context Of Russian History And Its Significance For Increasing Mutual Understanding Between The Russian People And Other Nations (Published)
The historical, cultural, natural and other prerequisites for formation of patterns of thoughts and mentality of the modern Russian citizens are considered in the article. Their interpretation will allow Europeans and Americans to increase effectiveness of their communication with Russians and among them: to make the right policy decisions by politicians separating the Russian people’ interests from their governments’ interests; to do business more effectively in Russia and to benefit from the tendency of the Russian people to combine laziness and great work capacity; to increase mutual understanding between Russians and the citizens of the Western countries and to improve cultural, scientific and touristic exchanges between them.
One significant beauty of literature is the openness of this academic discipline. It permits sensible endless debate on issues with a view to reconciling them and to bring out the best from the divided opinions for ultimate use of the most enduring and outstanding perspective from among many. Even before now that world has turned a global village; the geography of our existence allows us to tell our stories because man is heavily connected to his environment. Our culture and all our material creations including literature are therefore reflections of our ecological existence. This paper examines J. P. Clark’s “Night Rain” as a product of the relationship between literature and the environment, and the representation of nature, which make up the environment in a literary work. With the application of Eco-criticism as our theoretical framework, the paper concludes that our lives are not meaningful except they are situated in the cultural context of our environment. Hence, the study and understanding of culture in relation to the environment through literature will help us in solving the challenges of the 21st century.