Global Journal of Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences (GJAHSS)

EA Journals


A Phono-Morphological Study on Jin Hua Dialect (Published)

This paper discusses the phono-morphological feature of Jin Hua dialect, a city that is located in the central region of Zhejiang Province, China. Phonologically, the dialect contains 27 consonants and 51 vowels. The consonants ‘R’ and ‘L’ are not distinguished, i.e. all words with the starting consonant ‘R’ are pronounced ‘L’. Phonetic change occurs to nouns whose pronunciations end with /an/; /ia/; /a/; /e/. Precisely, four transition patterns have been confirmed: (I) /an/ → /a/; (II) /ia/ → /uá/, /a/; (III) /a/, /an/, /e/ → //; (IV) /e/ → /á/. Furthermore, vowel nasalisation results from the weakening of nasal-coloring in Wú dialect and appears to be limited to pronouns. Syntactically, the word order of an adverbial phrase is [Adj + Adv], which in standard Chinese would be: [Adv + Adj]. This accidently resembles the Thai language, Vietnamese and French. Deictic, i.e. 来 lái ‘come’ and 去 ‘go’, are extensively employed as modal particles in motion as well as change-of-state constructions. Another dialectal habit comes from the focus particle 添 tiān ‘one more time’. It is often added to the end of the sentence in order to emphasise the utterer’s opinion.

Keywords: Dialect, Morphology, Phonology


There have been speculations among scholars in the past on the reason for the perceptible difference in the tonal pattern of the Abankeleke Igbo. Prominent among these is that there is a feature of the upstep tone in this dialect group especially in Izii and Ezaa dialects that is absent in most other Igbo dialects. This paper therefore sets out to investigate the truth or otherwise of this claim in Izii and Ezaa dialects by analyzing the tone levels operational in these dialects and in the Standard Igbo and to compare them with those of the Standard Igbo. The data are collected through personal interview. Three respondents are randomly selected; one for Izii, Ezaa and Standard Igbo respectively. An adapted version of the Ibadan wordlist of 400 Basic Items was used and the data were recorded electronically. The data were transcribed and analyzed electronically using the Speech Tools Analyzer version 3, 0.1 (1996-2007) and the Phonology Assistant version 2.2 (1995-2005) software packages developed by the Summer Institute of Linguistics (SIL) International. The result of the perceptual analysis, which is confirmed by the instrumental analysis reveals that there is a feature of the high raising tone in Izii and Ezaa which is absent in most other Igbo dialects (among other factors) that contributes to the peculiar tonal phenomenon perceptible in the speech form of this dialect group.

Keywords: Acoustic analysis, Dialect, Pitch, Speech form, Tone

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