The aim of this study is to examine Spenser’s last major poems— Prothalamion, Fowre Hymnes, and Mutability Cantos-—to show that though they differ greatly from one another, they all, like the second half of the Faerie Queen, share a retrospective quality, looking back on the earlier poetry from the perspective of middle age. They deal in various ways with time, change, and the uses of the imagination, where in each, the speaker works through a sequence of imaginings toward a more comprehensive, if not to a final, vision. Fowre Hymnes was published in 1596 with a reprint of Daphna Ida. In the dedication to the Countesses of Cumberland and Warwick, Spenser asserts that he wrote the first two in honor of earthly love and beauty in the “greener times of [his] youth,” but finding “that the same loo much pleased those of like age and disposition, which being too vehemently carried with that kind of affection, do rather suck out poison to their strong passion, than honey to their honest delight, I was moved by the one of you two most excellent Ladies, to call in the same” (YESP 690). Since too many copies of these hymns had got abroad for them to be recalled, he “resolved at least to amend, and by way of retractation to reform them” with two hymns of heavenly love and beauty The dedication thus, as William Oram reflects in “Introduction: Spenser’s Para texts,” gives the four poems a biographical structure (xxi): the first two are the work of youth, while the second pair embody the second thoughts—the revision—of wiser age. It raises questions of biography (how accurate is this account of their genesis?) and of meaning (how are the first hymns opposed to the later ones?).
Indigenous Capital Formation Institutions among the Igbo: Factors for Change, 1914 2014. (Published)
For some time now, there has been a growing concern on how the ordinary man and woman in the town and rural communities of Africa can raise capital to start some micro-business and, thus, reduce poverty, and improve his or her standard of living. Within the period covered by this paper, successive governments and financial institutions have tried to address this challenge with little or no success. However, specifically for capital formation among the Igbo of southeast Nigeria, there exist traditional institutions through which the people raised resources to attend to their community and individual needs. These include, among others, Contribution Clubs, Family and Extended Family Pools, Age Grade Associations, Title Taking/Societies, Pawning, Inheritance, Land/Economic Trees Pledging, Imachi Nkwu and other Fruit Trees, Ilu – Elulu (Keeping Custody of Domestic Animal) and Ili – Ichi (Burial of Umbilical Cord). Consequently, this paper surveys those aspects of the traditional economic institutions that have become changed, transformed, or modified. Both internal and external forces have affected the traditional institutions for capital formation among the Igbo of southeast Nigeria, mostly by the later. This has caused the indigenous finance institutions to become altered from their original states. The paper concludes that in spite of the changes and modifications that had occurred overtime, the indigenous finance institutions have continued to exist. The descriptive and analytical methods were adopted in writing this paper. The period covered is 1914 to 2014.
Contributions of Various Kenyan Personalities in Communicating Change For Transformative Community (Published)
In spite of relatively stable governance and a hard working population, Kenya is rated among the countries with wide income disparities. Extreme and chronic poverty has not been eliminated even after fifty years of development efforts, that is, since the country gained its independence in 1963. In mitigating the adverse effects of these inequalities, communication is considered an essential tool for transformation through which essential thoughts in the minds of the people aimed at transformation are nurtured and shared. The purpose of this study was to identify the contributions made by various Kenyan personalities whose life experiences are shared in this paper, in communication change for a transformative society. The study displays how the select Kenyans engaged with the people and got them involved in transforming their community. A qualitative research design was adopted to select ten Kenyans to share their life experiences through in-depth interviews that were used by the author to gather data. Data analysis focused on the participants’ narratives on the aspect of their personal contributions and how they got the community working towards sustainable change. The study also recommends development of an African Communication Theory on what motivates communicative acts that lead to societal transformation.
Words are used in various forms and styles as political language for the achievement of a specific objective in political communication. The President Jonathan’s Great Leaders Election Campaign Advertisement, known as Change is not easy, is the political television commercial analysed, to understand how “change” in other countries in the world is associated with “transformation” in Nigeria, for the generation of voter support. The critical dialectical method used, found that the commercial is an exercise in glittering generalities, as propaganda in political communication. The proposition of “change” as “transformation” was a straw man’s logical fallacy and that the imported comparison of political performance by notable icons globally, has no direct correlation with transformation promised Nigerians, as bait for voter support and endorsement. It means that selected artistic elements in political advertisements must be relevant, through used political language, in the realisation of set objective. It shows that message acceptance and believability are essential in political communication.