Friendship and Identity: A Study of Relationship between Nel and Sula in Toni Morrison’s Sula (Published)
Toni Morrison’s Sula is a study of racism, segregation, feminism, identity seeking, protest and reaction. A novel primarily focusing on female characters as the protagonist, it is also a story of friendship between two characters from unprivileged backgrounds starting from the formative years of their lives. Nel and Sula are quite the opposite in characteristics but share mutual affection and dependency in a racist, patriarchal society where they are neither ‘white nor male’. They take care of each other and help each other in their own ways, and thus their friendship becomes the source of their empowerment and marks their presence in the world in the early stages of their lives. They get separated because of their contrasting ideologies, lifestyles and interests, but they are indeed the ‘other self’ of each other and complement each other to create their own identities.
Citation: Shovon A. A. (2022) Friendship and Identity: A Study of Relationship between Nel and Sula in Toni Morrison’s Sula, European Journal of English Language and Literature Studies, Vol.10, No.8, pp.62-69
Power-Conflict of Class and Sexuality: Strindberg’s Anti-Feminist “Soul Complex” In Miss Julie (Published)
From the eve of civilization women have been suppressed and looked down upon in male-dominated society. They are not treated by men from the neutral point of view rather they are habitually considered as man’s subservient. This unethical treatment is predominantly available in this current century even. Especially the women of the third world countries are still experiencing such vulnerability and receiving unexpected death like Miss Julie, the protagonist of August Strindberg’s Miss Julie. The vulnerability of women is beyond description and it is not only restricted in the existent world but also marginalized in the literary world. This article aims at exploring how Strindberg, a nineteenth century major playwright, assesses his female characters as secondary objects. He tries to prove and blame Julie as the only character who is liable for her own follies and her downfall. The dramatist finds out the fact using “soul complex” which, in brief, is used to refer to the complexity that influences the behavior of the character. The complexity inherent in Julie also drives her to move between the ends of class and sexuality. Though such complexity works as a dominant characteristic in every character, Miss Julie is victimized of this “complex” alone. In fact, Strindberg deliberately throws her life into the sea of miseries where she becomes isolated and helpless as a result of being suppressed by the steam-roller of her own class superiority and sexual inferiority. It is the consequence of Strindberg’s anti-feminist motive which seriously affects Miss Julie and sometimes disrupts her mother. Julie also puts up with all sorts of pain which is the push-factor behind her fall, the ultimate truth of life. Unfortunately the character Jean, who plays key role behind Julie’s death, remains unpunished even without trial or receiving any negative consequence of his actions
Citation:Noni Gopal Sutradhar (2021) Power-Conflict Of Class And Sexuality: Strindberg’s Anti-Feminist “Soul Complex” In Miss Julie, European Journal of English Language and Literature Studies, Vol.9, No.7, pp.34-38
Chokher Bali is an outcome of immense sensitivity on the part of the novelist, Rabindranath Tagore, who was interested in documentation of human psychology in his novels. Tagore could no longer take delight in dead metaphors of idealism, at a time when he perceived that the whole world around him was rapidly changing. Written during the phase of cultural transition, the novel presents the confusing state of slippages from moral line, which Tagore has considered more obvious than sinful. It was almost like beating the same line, if the novelists sought to preserve in their novels moral ideals and virtues in traditional style. Tagore, in Chokher Bali also, like in his other novels portrays human beings in the light of their idiosyncrasies, peculiarities, experiments and follies
SEXUAL ORIENTATION AND GENDER IDENTITY: NEGOTIATING DIVERSITIES AND INTERSECTIONS OF QUEER SPACE IN INDIAN WRITINGS (Published)
The entire systems of social categorization agree to for two sexes – male and female. But some societies explicitly articulate three sex categories, socially distinguishing hermaphrodites as a third, mixed intermediary, or alternate sex. Other societies seems to give consent to additional categories, allowing for a range of mixed, crossed, complex, or fluid identities in between male and female. Indian culture is based on the notion that there are two opposite sexes with distinct culturally approved gender characteristics. Using this binary system allows little tolerance for cultural and social variances of what is perceived to be masculine or feminine. Indian society is much more focused on sexual behaviour rather than social role choices and expectations. In Indian culture some people who are merely dissatisfied with their gender role often feel pressured to anatomically become the other sex through surgery. Some people do not believe that their gender identity corresponds to their biological sex, namely transgender people, including transsexual people and many inter-sexed individuals as well. Consequently, complications arise when society insists that an individual adopt a manner of social expression i.e. gender role which is based on sex. Sexuality, or gender identity, may be all about the cultural response to the individual. Some people may be born with confusing sexuality and they need to find the gender role that fits with their nature, and others find that the male/female, man/woman roles are not sufficient to embrace their gender/sexual role. The present paper examines how questions pertaining to sexual orientation and gender expression are inter-connected with the politics of citizenship. It also seeks to critically examine the social understandings of sexual identity and the powerful role that it plays in the arenas of family, personal relationships, the economy, work, the media, health, security and the environment. Through an examination of the selected literary texts in Indian writings in English, we will interrogate the ways in which heteronormativity permeates a variety of institutions in the public sphere. We may find answers and ways to respond that would embrace all human beings.
Sexual, Textual and Traumatic subjectivity: August Strindberg representation of class and sexual conflict in Miss Julie (Review Completed - Accepted)
This paper aims at understanding the importance of sexuality and the ways in which sexuality is accorded central status in an attempt to understand human relations, pleasure and satisfaction, sexual subject in culture, to reveal varying degrees of trepidation and anxiety about the ambiguities of sexuality i.e androgyny represents the resolution of the anxieties and tensions of sexual difference in favor of complementarity. In terms of class and gender this paper explores the patriarchal and misogynistic frameworks in which gender and sex were constructed in late 19th century and early 20th century; and how class and power mean mean that, that sexual never signifies in social isolation i.e power comes into play in the machinery of production, in families, limited groups and institutions. In terms of traumatic theory, this paper will see at how sexual trauma takes form of a psychological and ontological angst after reaching sexual maturity.