European Journal of English Language and Literature Studies (EJELLS)

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Religious Oppression and Injustices in the Irish Order of Nuns: A Critical Examination of the Film “Philomena” (Published)

This paper explores the themes and criticisms raised in the film “Philomena” regarding the Irish order of nuns and their treatment of women and children. The film sheds light on the injustices committed by the nuns, such as forced adoptions and the oppression of unmarried mothers. It highlights the role of religion in shaping societal attitudes towards sexuality and the consequences faced by those who violated these moral standards. The paper discusses the film’s portrayal of both compassionate and cruel nuns, questioning the credibility and morality of the entire Catholic order. It emphasizes the need for specificity when addressing the injustices committed by the nuns and acknowledges that not all nuns share the same behaviours or beliefs. Furthermore, the paper explores the role of journalism in uncovering these past injustices and the tension between the media and the secretive nature of the convent. Overall, “Philomena” serves as a timely reminder of the historical mistreatment and oppression endured by women and children in Catholic Ireland, calling for a re-evaluation of religious moral standards and the treatment of the vulnerable.

Keywords: Hypocrisy, Irish order of nuns, oppression., religious moral standards

Portrayal of Feminine Emotions in Charlotte Brontë’s Jane Eyre (Published)

Charlotte Brontë holds a unique place in presenting heroines who are assertive. As the author of vivid, intensely written novels, Charlotte Brontë broke the traditional nineteenth-century fictional stereotype of a woman as beautiful, submissive, dependent, and ignorant and delineated the portrait of a ‘new woman’ who is independent and who does not simply submit herself to the norms of the patriarchal setup. Charlotte Brontë’s first novel, Jane Eyre (1847) was immediately recognized for its originality and power. Since then, Brontë has been considered by critics as one of the foremost authors of the nineteenth century, an important precursor to feminist novelists, and the creator of intelligent, independent heroines who asserted their rights as women long before those rights were recognized by society. Through Jane Eyre, Charlotte Brontë aims to project the need to fight against the oppression in the patriarchy. Penniless, lonely and starving, Jane Eyre does not remain a victim of social injustice but emerges as a brave warrior to stand against the male domination and is determined to assert her individuality without submitting to the accepted traditional norms. Both Mr. Rochester and St. John want to master Jane and in both the cases, she insists on her independent will. She wants power and the freedom to be active as she wishes to experience the world in a positive and constructive fashion.  She does marry Mr. Rochester, but on her own terms and not at the cost of her independence.

Keywords: Charlotte Bronte, Feminine, Jane Eyre, Patriarchy, oppression.

Black Militant Theatre: Purificatory Rituals or Liberatory Violence? (Published)

Amiri  Baraka’s  pre-nationalist  and  nationalist  plays  such  as  Dutchman  and  Experimental  Death  Unit  # 1  largely  incorporates  scenes  of  murder  and  violence.  The cadaverous permeates. Baraka’s stage.  There  is  a  whole  sacrificial  system  that  determines  the  characters’ ultimate  destinies  and  lives.  This  mechanism  operates  not  merely  to  bring  death  to  those  who  betray  the  national  black  liberation  cause,  but  also  to  castigate  those  holders  of  the  slave  mentality and  chastise  the  assimilationists  who  hide  behind  a  white  mask.  This  sacrificial  mechanism  functions  as  a  generator  of  purification  to  cleanse  the  black community  from  the  vestiges  of  black  docility. In  the  Marxist  plays,  violence  and  murder  take  the  form  of  political  assassination.  A  play  such  as  The  Motion  of  History  displays  the  dynamics  of  political  struggle  that  conditions  the  kind  of  murder  or  acts  of  killings.  Whereas  in  the  nationalist  plays  murder  is  effected  for  purificatory  goals,  in  the  Marxist  plays  the  intersection  between  political  struggle  and  the  official  repression  of  the  state  determines  the  shape  of  physical  elimination  for  political  motives.  The  neutralization  of  political  opponents  assumes  that  murder  is  simply  a  means  of  exclusion  from  the  political  arena  and  restoration  of  political  and  social  stability.  Because  agitation  is detrimental  to  social  peace  and  political  order,  systemic  violence  takes  a  bloody  dimension  and  approximates  bloodshed.  This  paper  seeks  to  highlight  the  prevalence  and,  in  Frantz  Fanon’s  phrase,  the  instrumentality  of  violence  as  an  absolute  praxis  in  Baraka’s  dramatic  works.  Violence marshals then a new equation of asserted subjectivity. 

Keywords: Murder, Victimization, Violence, oppression., struggle

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