European Journal of Botany, Plant Sciences and Phytology (EJBPSP)

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Phytochemical screening and proximate analyses of some Medicinal plants used in Irun Akoko, Akoko North West Local Government Area Ondo State, Nigeria. (Published)

The study was designed to focus on the potential of seven selected medicinal plants vis Azadiracta indica (A.Juss), Saraca indica (Linn.), Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Stapf,), Morinda lucida, (Benth.), Moringa oleifera (Lam.), Acacia senegalens (Houtt.), and Gossypium arboretum (Jacq.). The plants are relatively available, effective, disease resistance, less toxic and found traditionally medicinal relevance in the study area.This work was designed to identify secondary metabolites present in the leaves extracts of Azadiracta indica (A.Juss). Saraca indica (Linn.), Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Stapf,), Morinda lucida, (Benth.), Moringa oleifera (Lam.), Acacia senegalens (Houtt.), and Gossypium arboretum (Jacq.) to validate their traditional importancePhytochemical screening and proximate analysis was carried out using standard qualitative and quantitative tests respectively. The screening assessed and determined the proximate composition of Azadiracta indica; Saraca indica; Cymbopogon citratus; Morinda lucida; Moringa oleifera; Acacia senegalens; and Gossypium arboretum. Statistical analysis was performed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) while  Duncan’s New Multiple range test were applied at 0.05 level of significance (p < 0.05). Phytochemical screening of the plants revealed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, tannins, phenols and flavonoids. Nutritional analysis revealed that all the plants were rich in crude protein, carbohydrate, fat, ash, moisture and dietary fiber. Morinda lucida has the highest moisture contents of 13.42± 0.05 % while Saraca indica has the least moisture contents of 9.19± 0.52 %. Acacia senegalens has the highest fat contents of 6.17±0.70 % while Azardiracta indica has the least contents of 2.84 ± 0.19  %. Similarly, Gossypium arboretum has the highest ash content of 13.46± 0.08 while Saraca indica is having least ash content of 6.60±0.03 %. Moringa oleifera has the highest proteins contents of 7.81±0.08 % while Cymbopogon citratus has least protein content of 3.64± 0.05 %. Gossypium arbereum has the highest number of fibers 11.28± 0.11  % while Saraca indica is having least fiber contents of 7.35± 0.14 %. Also, Saraca indica has the highest carbohydrates contents of 67.69 ± 0.11 while Moringa oleifera is having the least of carbohydrates content of 52.97±0.23 % respectively. Proximate composition in the plants supported various body functions such as body development, maintenance of fluid balance, formation of hormones, enzymes, repair of worn out tissues, sustaining strong immune function among others. Therefore, the results of this study validated the traditional relevance of the plants.

Keywords: Medicinal Plant, Phytochemical, Proximate, aqueous solvents, traditional relevance


Proximate composition and phytochemical analyses were carried out on the leaves of Annona muricata using standard methods. The result of the proximate composition showed that the leaves contained 88.99% dry matter, 11.01% moisture, 25% crude protein, 14.96% ash, 22.20% crude fiber, 21.22 % fat and 16.62% carbohydrate contents. The phytochemicals detected in the ethanolic leaf extracts were flavonoids, alkaloids, cardiac glycoside, tannins, triterpenoid, saponin and reducing sugar. The findings indicate that Annona muricata leaves is a potential source of highly nutritious feed stuff and phytomedicine. They are of nutritional, clinical and veterinary relevance considering the diverse ethnopharmacological uses of the plant in different parts of the world

Keywords: Annona muricata, Ethanol, Proximate, leaves, phytochemicals

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