Technical Efficiency in Maize Crop Production by Small-Scale Farmers in Central Agricultural Zone of Cross River State, Nigeria (Published)
The study determined resource use efficiency in maize crop production by small-scale farmers in the Central Agricultural Zone of Cross River State, Nigeria. It specifically investigated the socioeconomic characteristics and technical efficiency of resources used by small-scale farmers in rainfed maize production in the area. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics such as mean, frequency distribution tables, stochastic frontier model, gross margin analysis and the Likert scale model. The results of the descriptive statistics revealed that maize production in the study area is predominately carried out by people within the age bracket of 21-50 years. On sex distribution, the study revealed that maize production was carried out by both men and women with females taking the production lead at 58% as compared to 41% in the case of males. The study revealed that 57% of respondents were married, 36% were single, and 2% and 4% were divorced and separated respectively. The study also shows that maize farmers in the study area had family sizes ranging between 5-15 members in a household. The educational level revealed that maize farmers in the study area had some form of formal education with good farming experience. Also, the technical efficiency (TE) of the respondents in the study area was found to be less than (<) 1.0, indicating that all farmers were producing below the maximum efficiency frontier. This study also reveals that maize production if efficiently managed is profitable in the study area. The constraints in maize production as perceived by the study include; inadequate capital, lack of access to credit, lack of government support, lack of improved planting materials and poor market. This study recommends that male farmers should be encouraged to participate in maize cultivation as a means to augment their income and to further improve their standard of living. Maize farmers are advised to be more technically efficient in the use of their farm productive resources to increase rainfed maize production since all farmers were producing below the maximum efficiency frontier.
As a result of increasing population growth and urbanization, there is a high and increasing demand for rice, this necessitates the high attention for its production. This research was conducted to determine the profitability considering the cost and returns of paddy rice production in Chikun Local Government Area of Kaduna State. Data for the study were collected from 60 randomly selected paddy rice farmers using a well structured questionnaire and analyzed using the descriptive statistics, the gross margin and net income model. The result showed that 97% were male, 88% married and had an average household size of 10people. It was interesting to realize that all respondents had one form of education or the other and their average farm size was 15ha producing about 3.2tonnes of paddy per hectare. The average variable cost incurred per hectare was estimated to be $866.3 (N172,400) while the total cost of production was put at $1002 (N199,400) and a gross revenue of $1768.84 ( N352,000) was generated. Paddy rice production in the study area was estimated to have a gross profit $902.51 (N179,600) and a net returns of $766.83 (N152,600). The study however concluded that paddy rice production in the study area is a profitable enterprise and it also recommended that consistent government policies that would favour increase in paddy production, market information, extension service delivery, input subsidization and credit facilities be implemented.
Economic Analysis of Vegetable (Telfairia Occidentalis Hook F.) Production among Farming Households in Ibiono Ibom Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. (Published)
The study analysed the production of Telfairia occidentalis among farming households in Ibiono Ibom Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State. Data for the study were obtained from 90 vegetable farmers (Telfairia occidentalis) farmers in the area using a 2 – stage sampling procedure and analysed using descriptive statistics, multiple regression and budgeting technique. Results showed that 66.7 percent of the respondents were aged between 31 – 50 years; 72.2 percent were married; 53.3 percent had farming experience of about 9 years and 53.3 percent had household sizes of about 6 – 10 persons. The result of multiple regression showed that age, farming experience, cost of fertilizer and the cost of Telfairia occidentalis seeds were factors that affect vegetable (Telfairia occidentalis) production in the study area. The cost and returns analysis indicated that the fixed cost constituted 79.68 percent of the total cost of vegetable, while variable cost constituted 20.32 percent. On the average a farmer in the study area incurred a total cost of N30,857.74 in the production of Telfairia occidentalis and had a total revenue of N44,005.55 giving a net income of N13,147.81 per farmer. The profitability ratios RRI%, RRVC% and OR were found to be 42.6, 309.71 and 0.14 respectively, indicating that vegetable production was profitable in the area.