European Journal of Agriculture and Forestry Research (EJAFR)

EA Journals


Climate change effect on Cocoa Production in Central Agricultural Zone of Cross River State, Nigeria (Published)

The study examined climate change’s effect on cocoa production in the central agricultural zone of Cross River State, Nigeria. It specifically investigated the socioeconomic characteristics of cocoa farmers and the effect of climate variables on cocoa production in the study area. Both primary and secondary data were used for the study. Primary data were collected from 240 respondents and analyzed using descriptive statistics and the Likert scale techniques, Regression and correlation analysis were used to analyse the secondary data collected. The results of the descriptive statistics revealed that cocoa production was carried out by both men and women with men taking the production lead at 65.8% as compared to 34.2% of the women. On age distribution, the study revealed people within the age bracket of 18-50 years majorly cultivate cocoa in the area. The educational level revealed that the farmers had some form of formal education with good farming experience of between 11-20 years in cocoa production. The farmers had family sizes ranging largely between 6-15  persons in a household. The result also showed that 40% of the respondents inherited their farm holdings while 27.5%, 21.7%, and 10.8% of the respondents hired, purchased and rented their farm holdings respectively. The results of the multiple regression analysis revealed that about 78% of the climate variables influenced cocoa output in the area. It indicated that maximum temperature (Χ1), relative humidity (Χ4), wind (Χ6), and evaporation (Χ7) had an inverse relationship with cocoa output, whereas minimum temperature (Χ2), rainfall (Χ3), and sunshine hours (Χ5) had a direct relationship with cocoa output in the study area. The correlation analysis revealed that maximum temperature (Χ1), relative humidity (Χ4), and wind (Χ6) are negatively correlated with cocoa output while minimum temperature (Χ2), rainfall (Χ3), sunshine hours (Χ5) and evaporation (Χ7) are positively correlated with cocoa output in the study area. The most common strategies adopted by cocoa farmers to mitigate the effect of climate variables on cocoa production were the planting of cocoa-resistant varieties and intercropping cocoa with some tree crops to foretell bad weather conditions.

Keywords: Climate Change, Cross River State, Effect, Nigeria, cocoa production

Phytochemical Screening and in-Vitro Antioxidant Activity on Vernonia Amygdalina (Ewuro- Bitter Leaf) (Published)

Most of the plants exhibit a variety of phyto-pharmaceuticals, which have important applications in the fields of agriculture, human and veterinary medicine. This study was conducted to evaluate phytochemical screening and in-vitro antioxidant activity on Vernonia amygdalina (bitter leaf) at the Department of Biological Sciences, Federal Polytechnic, Ado Ekiti. It was revealed that the phytochemical constituents in Bitter leaf (Vernonia amygdalina) were alkaloids, saponin, tannins, terpenoids, flavonoids and cardiac glycosides in the extract. Anti-oxidant property results of the aqueous extract of Bitter leaf (Vernonia amygdalina) showed Total phenolic content was 120.16mg Gallic acid equivalent/g extract while the total flavonoid was 235.147mg Quercetin equivalent/g extract. The plant could be exploited as source of antioxidant additives and used for future project to evaluate the potentials of Bitter leaf (Vernonia amygdalina) as a strong medicinal plant in improving human health status.

Keywords: Nigeria, Phytochemical, anti-oxidant, in vitro, vernonia amygdalina

Comparative Effects of Poultry Manure and NPK Rates on Sunflower (Helianthus Annuus L.) Production in Rivers State, Southern Rainforest, Nigeria (Published)

A 2 x 4 x 3  rain fed factorial experiment arranged in a randomized complete block design, was carried out to compare the effects of poultry manure [PM] with N.P.K. (15:15:15) rates on sunflower in rivers state, southern rainforest of Nigeria. PM and NPK rates were 0, 5, 10, and 20g per seedling per pot. Data collected were plant height [at; 4, 6, 8 and 10 weeks after planting (WAP)]; number of leaves, leaf area (LA) at 6 WAP; head diameter, head weight, number of seeds per head and seed weight at harvest. Results show that  NPK initially produced taller plants but PM increased growth rate  with time over NPK.  PM at 5, 10 and 20 g produced taller sunflower plants at 10 WAP over NPK rates. There was no significant difference in the number of leaves between plants that received PM and NPK, though NPK influenced higher LA.   Head diameter, head weight and seed weight increased with doses of both fertilizers, 20 g PM produced sunflower plants with the widest diameter and weightiest seeds.  While number of seeds increased with PM rates, the highest number of seeds with NPK application was at 5 g application. This was still lower than the highest number of seeds produced by sunflower plants fertilized with 20 g PM.  Application of 20 g PM produced plants with highest growth rate, wider head diameter, highest number and seed weight. Twenty (20 g) PM application rate per seedling is recommended for Sunflower production in southern rainforest, Nigeria.  A further study on higher PM levels is also recommended.

Keywords: Nigeria, Poultry manure, Southern Rainforest, sunflower

Resource-Use Efficiency of Fluted Pumpkin (Telfariaoccidentalis) Production as Aid To Poverty Alleviation in South-South Part Of Nigeria (Published)

The rural areas in Nigeria are worse hit by poverty which is a ban on the standard of living on the people. Fluted Pumpkin (TelfariaOccidentalis)  is a crop produced for the economic importance of its leaves, fruits, seeds to the citizenry. This study therefore sought to examine the Resource-Use Efficiency of Fluted Pumpkin (TelfariaOccidentalis) Production as aid to poverty alleviation in Isoko South Local Government Area, South-South part of Nigeria.  Cross-sectional data were obtained through well structure questionnaire administered to 60 fluted pumpkin farmers drawn using simple random sampling technique from the study area during the 2015 production season. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, poverty line analysis, efficiency ratio analysis, and a 3-Point Likert Scale Rating. Results showed that majority (40%) of the respondents were within the age bracket of 31>40 years, with mean age of 38.9years while 66.7% of the respondents were females. 53.3% had farming experience of 1-5years, with mean value of 4.88years. 58.3% had 1-4 persons in their household size, with mean value of 4 persons. The efficiency ratio of hired labour (0.683), quantity of seed used (0.167), quantity of herbicide used (0.109), portrayed that these resources were over-utilized. Also the efficiency ratio of family labour (1.474 ) and quantity of fertilizers used (6.087 ), showed that the farmers were inefficient in the use of these resources.The poverty level analysis indicated that 20% of the studied population was within the extremely poor group while 70% were within the moderately poor group and only 10% fell within the group of non-poor. The results also revealed the major constraints faced by farmers to include: lack of access to credit facilities, high cost of transportation, lack of storage facilities, and scarcity of viable seeds; it is therefore recommended that the government and financial institutions should provide credit  facilities to the farmers for improved yields and efficient resource-use of inputs in the production  of fluted pumpkin in the study area.

Keywords: Farmers, Fluted Pumpkin, Nigeria, Poverty analysis, Resource Use

Operationalising Cost Sharing As A Sustainable Funding Model in Agricultural Extension Service: Farmers’ and Pubic Extension Agents’ Perception in Benue State, Nigeria (Published)

The study was carried out in Benue State, Nigeria to ascertain the perception of cost sharing as a sustainable funding model in agricultural extension processes among farmers and public extension agents (PEAs). Data were collected using interview schedule/questionnaire and Focus Group Discussion (FGD). Descriptive statistics such as frequency and percentage were used for analyzing the data. A sample of 174 farmers and 42 PEAs were selected for the study using purposive and simple random sampling techniques. Findings of the study indicate that majority of the farmers (62.1%) and all (100%) the public extension agents were males, married, middle aged and had formal education. Majority (56.3%) of the farmers and the PEAs (55.8%) had a high level of awareness on cost sharing. Both farmers (43.0%) and PEAs (42.9%) were of the opinion that cost-sharing is when all stakeholders contribute to facilitate the activities and  maintained that it is when benefitting farmers and government pay for extension services. Majority (82.8%) of the farmers perceived a positive impact of cost-sharing on agricultural extension service delivery if adopted, while most (61.9%) of the PEAs were indifferent about the impacts, among others. However, farmers also preferred that cost-sharing should be in the area of input provision (53.4%), while PEAs preferred advisory services (77.5%) as an area of intervention in the implementation of cost-sharing practices. The study recommends that there should be a gradual commencement of the implementation of cost-sharing practice given the high interest demonstrated by farmers as this will help to achieve the objectives of agricultural extension service. Efforts are also highly needed in the area of provision of farm inputs and advisory services to farmers in order to facilitate the adoption of cost-sharing practices.

Keywords: Agricultural Technology, Cost sharing., Farmers, Nigeria, public extension agents

Evaluation of Greenhouse Gas Concentrations at Wood-Based Burnt Brick Sites in Selected Local Government Areas of Benue State, Nigeria (Published)

This study evaluated the concentrations of the greenhouse gases CO, CO2, NO2, SO2, CH4 and NH3 at sixteen wood-based burnt brick sites selected from eight purposively sampled Local Government Areas (LGAs) of Benue State. The six greenhouse gases were monitored for two years, from 2012 to 2013, using CROWCON Gasman Digital Gas Meters. Descriptive and inferential statistics were employed in analyzing collected data. Results indicate that the concentrations of each of the greenhouse gases were significantly much higher during the dry season compared to their wet season concentrations (p<.0.5). There were also significant differences in the inter-local government concentrations of the assessed gases within the same period. The use of fuelwood to burn bricks is believed to have principally resulted in the observed significantly higher concentrations of the greenhouse gases during the dry season, from the months of November to March, and corresponds with the season of active wood-based burnt bricks production. The production of perforated bricks can reduce the volume of fuelwood used since the bricks are hollow and can be cured faster, and thus save energy cost as well as reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Greener alternative energy sources (like solar, wind, liquefied hydrogen gas and hydro) should be used in firing bricks as this can reduce greenhouse gas emissions from burning wood at brick sites.

Keywords: Burnt Brick, Energy, Gas Concentrations, Greenhouse, Nigeria

Slaughtered Cattle and Reasons for Slaughtering Cows in Ember Months at Lafenwa Abattoir in Abeokuta, Nigeria (Published)

High incidence of slaughtering of gravid cows has damnable effects on productivity of animal protein to the ever-increasing population in Nigeria. This study was conducted to evaluate the foetal losses from the slaughtering of pregnant cows at Lafenwa abattoir –Abeokuta, Ogun state. Information on demographical pattern of the butchers, herd size and composition of slaughtered animals as well as the reasons for slaughtering were assessed through the use of a structured questionnaire. Most of the butchers fell within the active age (31-40 years), married (83.3%) and having formal education at various levels. It was found that a total of 15112 cattle were slaughtered of which 76.7% were cows. The percentage of foetal wastage was 10.7%, while one foetus was lost for every nine cattle and seven cows slaughtered. Pregnant cows were mostly slaughtered for ceremonies and festivals while sometimes, it was due to poverty or disease condition of the animal. Control of foetal wastage in abattoirs will go a long way in increasing the population of livestock in Nigeria. Knowledge of the magnitude of bovine foetal wastage in abattoirs is necessary to forestall further occurrences.

Keywords: Cattle, Foetuses, Nigeria, Slaughtered, gravid

Economics of Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFPS) Marketing in Ikwuano Local Government Area, Abia State, Nigeria (Published)

Non-Timber Forest Products are capable of providing food, medicine and income to sustain livelihood. The study investigated the economics of Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFPs) marketing in Ikwuano Local Government Area, Abia State, Nigeria. Specifically, the study identified the major NTFPs present in the study area; examined the marketing channel of NTFP; ascertained profitability of NTFP marketing as well as constraints faced by the NTFP traders. Forty NTFP traders were interviewed using structured questionnaire from two markets in Ikwuano Local Government Area.  Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Net Income and Profitability Index. Results showed that trade in NTFPs is profitable with Net Income of N180/2kg and N250/2kg from Ukazi leaf (Gnetum africanum) and oil bean seed (Pentachlethra macrophylla) traded. The profitability index was 0.18kobo and 0.16kobo respectively. There is need for support from research institutes and the government to harness the sustainable extraction and further processing of these NTFPs.

Keywords: Ikwuano, Marketing, Nigeria, Non Timber Forest Products

Vol 4, Issue 2, May 2016 ()

Keywords: Ikwuano, Marketing, Nigeria, Non Timber Forest Products

Analysis of Processing Cassava Tubers into Garri in Isoko North Local Government Area of Delta State, Nigeria. (Published)

Inadequate capital and lack of improved technology for cassava processing have become major challenges in the development of the agricultural sector of the Nigerian economy. This had prompted this study on the analysis of processing of cassava tubers into garri in Isoko north local government area of Delta state, Nigeria. Cross sectional data were collected using purposive and simple random sampling techniques with the aid of well-structured questionnaire for the 2012 processing season. Purposive sampling technique was used to select six towns from the study area based on their involvements in cassava processing activities. Thereafter ten (10) respondents were randomly selected from each of the towns making a total sample size of sixty (60) respondents. Data were analyzed using simple descriptive statistics such as mean, frequency distribution, percentages and inferential statistics including gross margin and regression analysis. The results showed that 95% of the respondents were females. the highest proportion (38%) of the respondents were within the age group of 50>60 years and 33% had secondary school leaving certificates, 75% of the respondents were married and 58% had household size within the range of 5>8 persons, 66% of them were into cassava processing on part-time basis, while 33% had 11 > 15 years of processing experience and 67% of them used family labour. The estimated annual total revenue was N610,000, total variable costs was N370,000 and the gross margin was N240,000 per annum per respondent which represented 64.86% of the total variable cost of production. The implication was that for every one naira invested in the processing of cassava, the farmer gained 65 kobo. The result of the regression analysis revealed that 57% of the variability of the estimated revenue per annum (Y) was being accounted for by the independent variables in the specified model. Inadequate capital and fund, lack of improved technology, inadequate processing and storage facilities, small sized enterprises with low earnings, poor markets characterized by low pricing of products were the major constraints encountered by the processors in the industry. It was therefore recommended that credit facilities should be channeled to processors through the current micro-credit scheme of the Delta State Government, Government policies should be modified to include the provision of training programme to disseminate scientific knowledge to cassava processors, the Research-Extension Farmer linkage should be strengthened to furnish the processors with modern labour saving processing techniques, Processors should form co-operative association to establish garri- added- value- centres for improved weighing and packaging methods; Government and non-governmental organizations/agencies should assist in educating the cassava processing farmers through effective extension system on improved cassava processing technology, to bring about improved production, marketing and profitability; and in doing so, improves livelihood, income and food security of the people.

Keywords: Cassava Processors, Constraints, Delta State, Gross margin, Nigeria, Regression Analysis

Scroll to Top

Don't miss any Call For Paper update from EA Journals

Fill up the form below and get notified everytime we call for new submissions for our journals.