European Journal of Agriculture and Forestry Research (EJAFR)

EA Journals

Food Security

Micronutrient Status and Distribution of Some Community Lands Earmarked for Agricultural Intensification in Bayelsa State for Food Security (Published)

Improved agricultural production requires balanced nutrients. In spite of Bayelsa State’s intention to increase its’ agricultural base, little or no information is available on the soils micronutrient status. This study evaluated the status and distribution of Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu in some communities earmarked for agricultural intensification. Sample collection was guided by horizon differentiation. Micronutrients distribution variation was evaluated using coefficient of variation. Iron concentration varied from 41-91 mg/kg in Elemebiri (ELM) soils with moderate %CV (16, 17 and 28 for ELM1, ELM2 and ELM3) and 34-92 mg/kg in Trofani (TFN) soils with moderate to high %CV (30, 20 and 33 for TFN1, TFN2 and TFN3), respectively. The Mn values varied from 1.3 – 4.25 mg/kg for Elemebiri soils and 0.34 – 3.8 mg/kg for Trofani soils. The %CV of Mn was high as ELM1, ELM2 and ELM3 recorded 36, 31 and 38 %CV and TFN1, TFN2 and TFN3 87, 56 and 63, respectively. Available Zn varied between 3.48 – 16.56 mg/kg and 0.87 – 18.56 mg/kg in the Elemebiri and Trofani soils, respectively. The %CV for Zn was 32, 26, and 53 for ELM1, ELM2 and ELM3 and 41, 24 and 56 for TFN1, TFN2 and TFN3, respectively. Copper concentration varied between 1.24 – 5.3 mg/kg for Elemebiri soils and 0.75 – 5.7 mg/kg for Trofani soils. The %CV for Cu was 28, 33 and 25 for ELM1, ELM2 and ELM3 and 36, 53 and 43 for TFN1, TFN2 and TFN3, respectively. Though micronutrient status of the soils looks promising, there is need for close monitoring.

Keywords: Bayelsa State, Food Security, agricultural intensification, micronutrient status

Contribution of Non-Timber Forest Products to the income and household food security in the Sanaga-Maritime Division, Littoral region, Cameroon (Published)

Cameroon’s tropical forests possess many resources, including Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFPs). The present research therefore aims to highlight the contribution of NTFPs to household income and food security in the Sanaga-Maritime Division where the destruction of this resource has been observed for the benefit of oil palm production. Specifically, the aim is to identify the different NTFPs exploited in the sub-divisions of Dizangue, Ngwei and Pouma; – to estimate the contribution of NTFPs to household income; – to analyze the contribution of NTFPs to household food security and to identify the constraints related to the exploitation of NTFPs in these localities. Data were collected using a semi-structured questionnaires administered to the different categories of NTFP household users. A total of 104 households were interviewed, including 90 operators, 02 traders and 12 consumers. The SPSS 14.0 software and the Excel spreadsheet was used to analyze the data collected. Descriptive statistics as well as econometric logistic regression model combined with the Access Scale tool determining household food insecurity was used to realise the objectives of the study. The results show that the most exploited NTFPs were the leaves of Gnetum africanum, the fruits of Dacryodes edulis and Irvingia gabonensis. Therefore, agriculture remains the main source of income for the households surveyed (32%). However, NTFPs harvested contribute 19.5% of household income. The logistic regression model demonstrated that the consumption of NTFPs from picking, although not significant, positively influenced food security of surveyed households. Factors such as income and household size significantly affect food security. Despite the fact that users of NTFP faced some constraints, some of them still put in place strategies to ensure the sustainability of those resources.


Keywords: Food Security, Household, Income, Non Timber Forest Products

Enhancing rural food security and conserving natural environment through improved Beekeeping in Asano koto watershed, Ethiopia (Published)

The role of bees in agriculture, in maintaining biodiversity and in sustainable livelihoods and food security has been widely demonstrated. Nevertheless, the potential of beekeeping is far too often not exploited in forest activities and development programmes, because the benefits of bees and beekeeping are not well known to stakeholders. This paper is aimed to provide farmers and stakeholders in the beekeeping on the conservation sector with information and arguments to convince them to view beekeeping as a viable commercial and protective measure that should always be considered in conservation programmes. The study revealed that by increasing beekeeping skill, honey producers in the watershed realized the value and the need to conserve watershed as they obtained alternative income from honey production as high value commodity. Adoption of beekeeping was realized to be appropriate adaptation measures following the fact that it improved livelihood of local people and enhanced sustainable conservation of the natural environment. Therefore, if watershed conservation and livelihood preservation are to occur, it is important to bring the voices of honey producers to the forefront of watershed conservation efforts. The study also determined several factors that have been barriers to wider adoption of beekeeping at Asano koto watershed. These include lack of appropriate beekeeping skills among local people, financial constraints and environmental factors. To promote and sustain beekeeping among rural communities at the watershed, improvement of extension services, tree planting campaign and microfinance services have been suggested.

Keywords: Ethiopia, Food Security, Siltie zone, integrated beekeeping, watershed conservation

Impact of Agricultural Extension on Food Security among Small Scale Farmers in Wareng District, Kenya (Published)

Agricultural extension is one of the effective tools in attaining the millennium development goals related to the reduction and eradication of extreme poverty and hunger in developing countries like Kenya. Despite that extension services were practiced for many years in Kenya, it is evident that these services have declined rapidly. This paper aims to find out the impact of extension on food security among small scale farmers in Wareng District. A survey of 120 smallholder farmers was used in the study. Though there was difference between farmers in different wealth categories, the mean difference is larger at the present compared to the past. Generally extension have played role in improving the living status of farmers in the study area. However, agricultural extension services seems to have an impact on improving food security in the country and increase the wealth gap between farming households and also replace local landraces with improved varieties. The study recommends that the Kenyan government should develop a new and expanded policy agenda for agricultural extension and communication for rural development focusing national attention on food security and income generation of the rural poor.

Keywords: Agriculture, Food Security, crops, extension, livestock’s

Comparative Analysis of Factors Influencing Quantity of Maize Marketed Among Agricultural Households in Oyo and Osun States, Nigeria (Published)

This research is a comparative analysis with a focus on the quantity of maize marketed and factors influencing such quantity among agricultural households in Oyo and Osun States of Nigeria. Multistage random sampling technique was employed to sample two hundred and twenty (220) maize farmers from Oyo while one hundred and eighty (180) maize farmers were selected from Osun for the study. A structured interview schedule was used to collect primary data from the respondents. Data were obtained on socio-economic characteristics of respondents, production and marketing practices, prices and costs. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics, an estimation of Cobb-Douglas regression model and the Chow’s F- test.

The result showed that in Oyo state, mean age for respondents was 45.8 years while it is 42.7 years for Osun counterparts. The summary of sex distribution revealed that 70.9 percent of the Oyo respondents are male compared with 57.8 percent of Osun respondents. In addition, 17.7percent of Oyo respondents compared with 14.4 percent of Osun respondents had no formal education at all. The summary of marital status distribution of respondents showed that more than ninety percent of the interviewed farmers from each state were married while the major source of finance for the farmers from both states was personal savings. Regression analysis revealed the R-squared (R2) as 0.734 for Oyo while it is 0.794 for Osun. This showed that 73.4percent of the variation in quantity of maize marketed by respondents from Oyo was explained by the estimated variables while the variables explained up to 79.4 percent for Osun. The Chow’s f-test that was employed to measure the statistical difference between quantity of maize marketed by Oyo and Osun States respondents revealed that there is no significant difference.


Keywords: Chow’s f-test, Food Security, Maize Marketing

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