The study focuses of five CEO characteristics with the aim of discovering the possible link between these characteristics and the capital structures of the firms they are attributed to. The study applied parametric or non-parametric test (depending on the outcome of the normality test) to determine the nature of relationship between CEO characteristics and capital structure. Data for this study was obtained from three sub-Saharan African countries: Kenya (twenty companies), Nigeria (twenty-three companies) and South Africa (twenty-one companies) for a period of five years (2012 to 2016). CEO nationality characteristic (which is a proxy for international experience/competence for the CEO) was found to be significant to the capital structure of companies.
The study examined the effect of CEO characteristics of tenure, nationality, gender and share ownership on the dividend paid by sixty-four companies located in Sub-Saharan Africa. It used data for five years (from 2012 to 2016) and covered three Sub-Saharan African countries. Twenty companies were selected from the sixty-five listed on the Kenyan Stock Exchange; twenty-three from the one hundred and seventy-two on the Nigerian Stock Exchange and twenty-one of the three hundred and seventy-six companies listed on Johannesburg Stock Exchange. Kruskal Wallis was applied to test four hypotheses. Two CEO characteristics – nationality and share ownership – were found to have significant relationship to dividend payout in the data available for the study.
The Influence of Legitimacy and Marketing in the Context of Accounting for the Environment in a Sub-Saharan African Country (Published)
Purpose – The paper intends to serve as a contribution to the requirements for organizations to account for and disclose the social and environmental (SE) consequences of their activities, aspects of the concept of sustainability accounting (SA). In particular, this research study investigates the current practices of environmental accounting (EA), whether it is influenced by the same values as that of society and is used as a marketing tool of the oil and gas sector in Uganda, a less developed country. Design/methodology/approach – The study involved 57 oil and petroleum supply chains. Major data collection methods included a review of 13 annual reports/statements by oil companies and both a structured and a semi-structured questionnaire involving 272 respondents, with a response rate of 57.0%. A mixed-methodological approach was employed to analyze the qualitative and quantitative data together. Findings – (1) There are no detailed archival records related to EA; (2) respondents’ (106) responses to the possible consequences of not accounting for the environment were almost indifferent on issues that influence marketing, indicated by the small differences in the mean (1.83 to 2.50) and standard deviations (0.504 to 0.925); (3) responses on the influence of legitimacy and marketing on accounting for the environment ranged from 8.3% to 90.0%, while the mean ranged from 1.92 to 3.90 and the standard deviations from 0.303 to 1.482; (4) we suggest that EA is currently not being done, which is an indicator of poor management of the environment; (5) the results support that a marketing tool is not a significant determining factor of accounting for the environment, despite having a social role to fulfill; and (6) the results do support the theory of legitimacy, because oil and petroleum products suppliers in the country respond to environmental laws, regulations and guidelines. Originality/value – The highlighted perspective on how organizations account for and disclose the environmental trends of their activities – an aspect of the concept of SA in Uganda, a country with a youthful population, open markets, abundant resources and significant unexploited oil and gas reserves – distinguishes this study from others on similar topics.