British Journal of Psychology Research (BJPR)

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Influence of Gender on the Adversity Quotient (AQ) of Inmates in Delta State, Nigeria


This study is to determine the influence of gender on the Adversity Quotient of inmates in Delta State. One research question and corresponding hypothesis guided the study. The design of the study was a descriptive research design. A sample of 525 inmates was drawn from a population of 7,348 inmates in all the custodian centres in Delta State. The researchers adopted purposive and non-proportionate stratified simple random sampling techniques for the sample size determination. The instrument for the study was titled Adversity Quotient Scale for Prisoners (AQSP). The AQSP is made up of 96 items delineating inmates feeling adversity. Almost half of the items of the AQSP were positively keyed while the othesr half was negatively keyed. The face and content validities of the instrument were established. The reliability of the instrument was ascertained using internal consistency reliability via Cronbach Alpha technique. A coefficient of 0.95 was obtained. Data obtained were analyzed using descriptive statistics of mean and standard deviation, independent sample t–test technique. The results showed that there was a significant difference between the male and female inmates on their Adversity Quotient. This implies that there is nothing to worry about when comparing the adversity level of male and female inmates. The study therefore recommended among others that prison warders should encourage the inmates by giving assignments on biographies of people within and outside the immediate environment of inmates who have distinguished themselves through dint of discipline, hard-work and sheer bravery.

Citation: Chiawa N., and Opara, I. M. (2023) Influence of Gender on the Adversity Quotient (AQ) of Inmates in Delta State, Nigeria, British Journal of Psychology Research, Vol.11, No.1, pp.37-52,

Keywords: Gender, Inmates, adversity quotient, correctional centres.

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