The study sought to examine how knowledge and skill in ICT of Social Studies teachers influence their teaching of the subject to students who are deaf in schools in Ghana. The study was hinged on the Social Cognitive Theory and Human Capital Theory and used convergent parallel design with the mixed methods approach. The population for the study comprised all JHS Social Studies teachers and headteachers numbering 42 in the 14 public schools for the deaf in Ghana. Census sampling was used to select all the 28 respondents (teachers) for the quantitative phase while convenience sampling technique was also used to sample 14 participants for the qualitative aspects of the study. Data was gathered through questionnaire for the quantitative data and analysed using descriptive measures (frequencies and percentages, means and standard deviations) while the qualitative data was accessed through semi-structured interviews and textually analyzed. The findings showed that the majority of Social Studies teachers handling deaf students possessed requisite knowledge and skills in ICT and showed interest in teaching the subject, nevertheless, only few of them employed ICT in teaching Social Studies. It is recommended that Social Studies teachers to students who are deaf be provided with computers and taken through regular in-service training to help them meet their special needs and other ICT tools.
“Decolonisation” and “Africanisation” of Knowledge: Politico-Ideological or Educational Concepts? (Published)
This paper argues that decolonisation and Africanisation of the curriculum are problematic concepts that appeal more to political sentiments than present an academic discourse. First, the concept of decolonisation is used in a narrow sense relating only to the effects of the post- Berlin Conference of 1884 and similar forms of subjection of indigenous peoples to foreign domination and excludes other forms of colonisation, the subjugation of the other, which manifests in elite, class, gender and other forms of segmental colonisation. Secondly, the simultaneous use of decolonisation and Africanisation as transformation is inappropriate because the two do not lead to the same result. Besides adopting a narrow conception of decolonisation, Africanisation of the curriculum is just as chauvinistic in practice as colonisation itself; and also fails to distinguish between the normative and epistemic dimensions of knowledge production. While not denying the role of the sociology of knowledge in epistemology, the paper maintains that one cannot decolonise or Africanise the curriculum and still retain both the colonial framework and the substantive structure. That would be simply engaging in semantics and not in substance. The paper further maintains that scholarship and knowledge production are universal practices; and Africa has made serious contributions to knowledge and scholarship outside of the discourse of decolonisation and Africanisation. Therefore, while both concepts might appeal to sentiment, practically they are unimaginable. A more appropriate conceptualisation would be “internationalisation and advancing Africa’s contribution to the global movement for change in the academy, and by extension in the curriculum.”
Perceived Level of Knowledge and Skills On the Use of E-Learning Among Lecturers and Students at the Open University of Tanzania (Published)
This study examined the level of knowledge and skills on the use of e-learning among lecturers and student at the Open University of Tanzania. The study was guided by one research question and one hypothesis. The study was also guided by Dynamic Skills Theory developed by Fischer in 1980. The study employed convergent design under mixed research approach. The target population involves 2616 students, 303 lecturers, 50 instructional designers, 01 Director of Quality Assurance, and 01 Director of Examination Syndicate. The sample of this study included 262 students, 30 lecturers, 01 director of quality assurance, 01 director of examination syndicate, 05 instructional designers. Stratified, simple random, and purposeful sampling techniques were used to determine the study sample that consisted of 299 respondents. Research instruments included questionnaires, interview guides, and document analysis schedule. For quantitative data analysis the researcher used both descriptive and inferential statistics. For qualitative data analysis the researcher used thematic analysis for analyzing qualitative data. Data for both quantitative and qualitative are presented using tables, charts, figures, narrations, themes, categories and direct quotations were used to present the study findings. The findings indicated that a moderate majority of lecturers and majority of students perceived had lack knowledge and skills on the use of e-learning. The average mean score for lecturers and students was 2.97 and 2.25 respectively. This indicated that there was disagreement on the perceived level of knowledge and skills on the use of e-learning among lectures and students. Moreover, the findings indicated that there is no significant difference mean score between arts students and science students on the perceived level of knowledge and skills on the e-learning at the Open University of Tanzania. The study concluded that both lecturers and students had perceived inadequate knowledge and skills on the use of e-learning. The study recommends, that The Open Universities of Tanzania with collaboration of Institute of Education Management and Technology should provide training for both lecturers and students on issues regarding utilization of e-learning.
Rosseau on Education (Published)
There is a long tradition of delivering and getting the formal education, especially from Greek era. But, apart from it, around one million years ago when man raised himself from Homo-erectus to Homo-Sapien, Homo-Sapien Sapien, has been learning to know about Nature. He developed language, which also came to him from external atmosphere. Can we refuse that people made tools from stones, bronze and iron? This shows that, as many interacted with Nature. It also whispered in their mind its secrets. So, we can say that learning is not the phenomena of today. But, when eventually knowledge got its formal shape, it’s considered, that man’s heritage is stored in language, both written and oral. In many countries, still people orally recite legends. Written word was formed in Egypt in the shape hieroglyphics. Even, Herodotus admired Egyptian architecture. Eventually formal education started in Greece, and the first philosopher was Thales of Miletus who was a materialist. The ideas under discussion and in form of treatises were diverse. If we can sweepingly say, the source of human knowledge, in its earliest way, started from Greeks, and until now knowledge and education have their roots in Grecian thoughts. Greeks enriched every field of Knowledge. In historical context we still have to look back to Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle, but this tradition didn’t stop and has led to superior intelligence in the mind, which is making inventions and developing theories, day after day.In the history of philosophy, as its source is conjoined with Greeks, but in West, several philosophers have carried out this tradition, like Rosseau, Kant, Hegel, Marx, Sartre, Wittgenstein and Alfred North White Head. We don’t indulge ourselves in the game of the greatest, or major or minor philosophers, but everyone has contributed according to his own capacity, to the collective body of human Knowledge.Knowledge can be easily equated with education. Knowledge and education go side by side. We seek knowledge and then after digesting it we become educated. But, it should be kept in mind, the body of knowledge is so large, that our mind is limited and can’t attain everything and every type of education.This article is based specifically on the views of education by Rosseau, which are perpetually modern. Rosseau was the major figure, as an intellectual, behind French Revolution of 1789.Rosseau also was among the most persecuted philosophers due to his adventurous and rebellious, but diverse ideas. He wrote, ‘Emile’, which is known as the best book on education. It can also help the chaotic conditions of this post-modern world to exigize from it the true meanings of education, and resolve its problems. This book when reached to ‘Kant’ he was overjoyed. Moreover, ‘Confessions’ by Rosseau is a book which has no match, as a true autobiography.This article explores the modern creed of education and attempts to correlate it with high pitch ideas of Rosseau present in “Emile”.
Pre-Service Teachers’ Use of Pedagogical Content Knowledge in Teaching and Learning Mathematics at Basic Seven in Akatsi District, Ghana (Published)
The purpose of the study is to explore how pre-service teachers’ use their Pedagogical Content Knowledge (teachers’ knowledge of content and students’ thinking process) to identify and diagnose students’ misconceptions in comparing, adding, multiplying and dividing fractions. Pre-service teachers were expected to identify students’ misconceptions, give reasons of students’ misconceptions, and ask specific questions to diagnose students’ thinking processes that lead to the misconceptions. A total of 72 pre-service teachers teaching Mathematics were purposively selected out of 320 students from the schools of practice. Descriptive survey design was used for the study. Data collected were analyzed using frequencies, percentages and means. The study revealed that about 60% of the pre-service teachers could identify the students’ misconceptions but only 17% of them could articulate the reasons for students’ misconceptions clearly. Also about 58% of the pre-service teachers asked probing questions instead of specific questions to diagnose students’ misconceptions and only about 14% of them asked specific questions. It was concluded that most of the pre-service teachers were able to identify students’ misconception but could not give reasons for the students’ misconceptions. In addition, majority of the pre-service teachers could not ask specific questions to diagnose students’ misconceptions. It was recommended that teacher training institutions integrate pedagogical content knowledge in to the curriculum to equip pre-service teachers with skills that would enable them to analyze students’ thinking processes.