British Journal of Education (BJE)

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Methods Used By Teachers to Teach Christian Religious Education in Secondary Schools in Kimilili in Bungoma County, Kenya (Published)

Christian Religious Education in secondary schools in Kenya occupies a key position in the 8-4-4 curriculum. This is so because it enables the learner to integrate all subjects of the curriculum into a more mature view of self, their relationship with the environment, both physical and cultural, other people and God. The purpose of the study was to establish factors that face the use of audiovisual resources for teaching Christian Religious Education (CRE) in Kimilili Division, Bungoma County in Western Kenya. Based on the study, this paper surveys the methods used by teachers in teaching CRE in the study area. The study adopted a survey research design. Random sampling was used to select both CRE teachers and students to participate in the study while stratified sampling was used to select the schools. The sample was drawn from secondary schools in Kimilili Division of Bungoma County in Kenya. The sample size was made up of 266 respondents, comprising 242 CRE students and 24 CRE teachers. Data was collected using questionnaires and observation schedules. The study used two sets of questionnaires; one for CRE teachers and another for students. The collected data was quantitatively analyzed using descriptive statistics and presented using tables and graphs. The findings showed that the CRE subject is mainly taught using verbal communication and the use of textbooks is common. Based on the findings of the study, it was recommended that curriculum planners and other educational stakeholders in Kenya should establish CRE resource centres in every County so that resources for teaching CRE can easily be availed to teachers for teaching the subject. This paper will help teachers and other educational stakeholders to understand the importance of combining various methods in teaching with the sole purpose of ensuring that learners are able to master, retain and live out the content that is taught in CRE in Kenya.

Keywords: CRE, Christian Religious Education, Kenya, Methods, Secondary Schools, Teachers


The teacher is the most important ingredient in the effective teaching and learning and more so the life skills. It is therefore important that teachers are very well prepared to meet this new challenge of teaching life skills. The success of a teacher largely depends on his/her personal context, personal efforts and his/her general personality. These characteristics can be greatly enhanced if a teacher receives specialized training in methods of teaching life skills education programme. This prompted the author to carry out a study in life skills teaching in secondary schools in Eldoret East District in Kenya. This paper discusses the findings on how the training of teachers influences life skills education in the study area. The study adopted a descriptive survey research design. The techniques used to select the research sample were stratified, purposive and simple random sampling. Two hundred and forty (240) students, 45 teachers and 15 heads of humanities department were selected to participate in the study. To collect data, questionnaire and interview schedule were used. Data collected were coded in Statistical Package for Social Scientists (SPSSv 13.5) and analysed by non parametric Chi-square (χ2) test, descriptive statistics and frequency distribution. The findings were presented in form of tables, charts and graphs. The study revealed that teachers were not fully prepared to teach life skills and were in dire need of in-service courses for effective teaching. It was therefore recommended the Ministry of Education through KIE should facilitate in-service training of LSE teachers at least once per year and provide clear guidelines on how to teach the contents of LSE. Investigation into teachers’ classroom competence has yielded findings, which can be used for the betterment of teaching and learning of life skills in Kenyan secondary schools. Curriculum developers would find the research findings useful as they reflect on the extent in which the objectives set for the course are being achieved

Keywords: Eldoret East District, Kenya, Life Skills Education, Role, Secondary Schools, Teacher Training


Despite the vulnerable status of the orphaned learners, every child in Kenya has a right to quality education that should lead to good performance and achievement of Universal Primary Education (UPE). This study assessed coping strategies by exceptional orphaned learners and their academic achievement in Winam Division in Kisumu County. The theory underpinning the study was self- efficacy theory by Albert Bandura (1994). Descriptive survey design was used in the study. The study population consisted of 43 head teachers, 516 teachers and 3042 orphaned learners in 43 mixed public primary schools. Data was collected by questionnaire, interview schedule and document analysis. Quantitative data was analyzed using frequency counts, means, percentages and standard deviation. Data from the interviews were organized into themes and sub-themes as they emerged through the objective. The study established that; most orphaned learners stay with older siblings, lacked some basic needs and lacked guidance from adults. Hard work, personal ambition, role models from their schools and guidance from teachers were the most outstanding factors that enabled orphaned learners to perform well in their academics. The study recommends that grandparents who care for the orphans be supported financially by the government. The Ministry of Health in collaboration with other stake holders should launch health and nutrition program in schools where the program has not yet been started. Life skills education should be examined like any other subject in the curriculum. There should be a vote head under FPE to cater for orphaned learners’ school requirements. School administration should link orphaned learners who perform well with sponsors to ensure that they continue with their secondary education

Keywords: Academic Achievement, Assessment, Coping Strategies, Kenya, Orphaned Learners, Primary schools.

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