The endemicity of malaria in any locality in determine by indigenous Anopheles species composition, distribution as well as Plasmodium infectivity. This research was conducted to determine the species composition and distribution of Anopheles mosquito vectors in Kontagora, Niger State Nigeria. Adult mosquitoes were collected from five (5) sampling sites widely located in Kwangwara, Tudun wada, Dadin kowa, Sabon gari and Usubu areas of Kontagora metropolis. Collected mosquitoes were taken and examined in the laboratory, sorted into Anopheles and identified into species using standard taxonomic keys and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) techniques respectively. Data generated were analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Scientists (SPSS) software version 20.3 and excel package. Anopheles species composition was expressed as the percentage of total Anopheles mosquitoes collected. Chi-square test was used to compare the results from the five sampling locations. The results of the study revealed six (6) Anopheles species; namely An. gambiae, An. funestus, An. squamosus, An. coustani, An. nili and An. maculipalpis, whose distribution varied significantly (p < 0.05) between sampling locations with An. gambiae predominating. Findings therefore revealed the preponderance of Anopheles gambiae species, indicating high malaria transmission potentials in the study area. This underscores the importance of generating intensive spatio-temporal information on the risk factors associated with malaria transmission on a local scale.