International Journal of Weather, Climate Change and Conservation Research (IJWCCCR)

EA Journals

Climate Change

Climate Change Implications for Agricultural Sustainability in Enugu in the Guinea Savanna Eco-Climatic Zone of Southeastern Nigeria: Input from Climate Change Proxies (Published)

Climate change poses debilitating effects for agriculture and food security in low technology countries such as sub-Saharan Africa. The trends and variations of some climatic variables that influence agriculture were analysed using integrated statistical techniques. The aim is to examine the possible effects of climate change on agricultural sustainability in Enugu, southeastern Nigeria using lessons drawn from trend analysis of historical time series of meteorological variables in monthly time step in the area. The area whose economy is largely agrigarian has continued to witness incidence of poor crop productivity. Significant long-term trends were identified in some of the variables and non-significant trends in others. Inferences were made with considerable support of evidence and high degree of confidence. The climate of the area is changing in a manner that concern for agricultural sustainability is on the front burner of the long-term resulting consequences. The need for pre-season and on-season climate information dissemination system is advocated to provide timely and accurate agro-meteorological information

Keywords: Climate Change, Enugu, Nigeria, Trends, agricultural sustainability, climatic parameters, statistical techniques

Climate Change and Its Impact on Sustainable Development in Arab Countries (Published)

Human activities represented in industrial and technological revolution led to the increase of emissions of warming gases and their concentrations in the atmosphere. This increase caused the phenomenon of greenhouse gases and the rise of earth temperature over its natural rates as a result of the increase of absorption rate of infra-red rays, which led to the climate change of the earth. These gases are carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide (PFcs ,HFcs, and SF6. Many studies dealt with natural and reviving environment and its relation with climate change. These studies have increased much in the last 5 years and they led to more confidence in the relation between warning phenomenon and its impact on the national economies. They confirmed that there is a high degree of certainty for the present regional changes in temperatures. The impact of these changes was quite clear on many physical reviving systems because of warming phenomenon. This research dealt with studying the different impact of climate on sustainable development in the Arab world. It set up a policy for adaptation to or mitigation of climate changes to achieve sustainability in development, through which we can preserve the environment and achieve development. The research is based on the realistic and Descriptive analysis to identify the nature of the relation between climate change and sustainable development in the Arab world. Besides, the research used the adjusted net saving rates which reflect the variability of sustainable development used by the World Bank to show environment deterioration and depletion in addition to the use of sustainability of development in the Arab world. we could find out that some countries achieved recent positive values and others achieved recent negative values. This shows that climate changes have negative impact on sustainable development operation in the Arab countries.

Keywords: Arab Countries, Climate Change, Environment, Sustainable Development

Assessing Climate Change Related Events on the Rights of Subsistence in the Rural Coastal Communities of Ghana (Published)

From the perspective of international human rights law, people are in no case be deprived of their own means of subsistence. However, weather and climate change pose both direct and indirect threat to a wide range of universally recognised human rights, by depriving millions of people of their rights of subsistence. This study looks at climate change and its effects on rights of subsistence in the rural coastal communities. The following research questions guided the study: (1) what are the climate change related effects on the right to adequate clean water?  (2) what are the climate change related effects on the right to food?; and (3) what are the climate related effects on the right to adequate housing? The population for this study included the residents in the two coastal communities, namely, Ampenyi in the Central Region and Anlo Beach, close to Shama in the Western Region. Mixed method approach with a sequential design was employed. Triangulation was used to test the consistency of findings obtained through different instruments used. Purposive sampling technique was employed in selecting the two communities and the respondents. Instruments for the data collection were questionnaire, interviews and observation. The quantitative data was analysed into simple percentages, whilst the qualitative data was done by interpretative technique whereby the outcomes were put into thematic areas based on the research questions. It was revealed from the study that, climate change related events have directly or indirectly affected rights of subsistence of the residents in the study areas. The study therefore, recommended that, rights-based approach should be applied in effective coastal planning and resiliency building to help the affected communities cope and adapt to living in a dynamic climatic environment.

Keywords: Climate Change, Coastal Communities, Rights of Subsistence, Rural Coastal Communities.

Investigating the Influence of Cosmic Rays on the Climate of South-East and South-South Regions of Nigeria Using Sunshine Hours and Relative Humidity. (Published)

There is a rising concern about the agents and mechanisms of climate change. The contribution of anthropogenic greenhouse gases to global warming has long been accepted by most scientists, however, the impacts of some natural factors such as cosmic rays, sunspot and geomagnetic activities are yet to be established. This study investigated the effects of cosmic rays on the climate of south-east and south-south parts of Nigeria from 5 meteorological stations in the regions for a period of 48 years (1965-2012). Sunshine hours and relative humidity were used as weather parameters. No particular trend was found in the value of cosmic rays during the period; similarly, the sunshine hours and the relative humidity also produced very irregular patterns. A very low but positive correlation coefficient of 0.3 was found between cosmic rays and sunshine hours with almost no correlation (r = 0.1) between cosmic rays and relative humidity.  

Keywords: Climate Change, Cosmic Rays, Relative Humidity, Sunshine Hours

Climate Smart Aquaculture: A Sustainable Approach to Increasing Fish Production In The Face Of Climate Change in Nigeria (Published)

As the global population increases, demand for food, most especially protein will increase. Production from fisheries is crucial for food security in the face of current population increase.  Despite the reliability on fisheries and aquaculture to supply the animal protein needed by the world population, climate change has significantly reduced production and increase instability in the sector. In order to achieve food security and fisheries development goal, climate smart aquaculture which is an adaptation to climate change and lower emission intensities per output will be necessary. This review therefore discusses climate smart aquaculture as veritable approach to increasing fish production in the face of climate change trend in Nigeria. A number of changes already evident can be attributed to climate change; drastic change in weather condition, reduction in water levels, changes in hydrological regimes of inland water, heavy wind storm, excessive sunshine, increased incidence of flooding and drought. The effects of these changes have resulted in changes in ocean fish productivity, fish disease infestation and reduction of production from inland and aquaculture systems. Climate smart adaptation and mitigation strategies has helped to increase the resilience and adaptive capacity of communities and ecosystems, examples of such strategies include adopted strategies in the Niger-Delta region of Nigeria where about 80% of fish farmers were reported to have adopted strategies such as use of tarpaulin/tank ponds during dry weathers, about 70% have adapted by adjusting time of stocking while 60% stocked fish species that can better adapted to climate change impacts. Other adaptations strategies include erection of cover/shades over ponds, digging boreholes/wells to supply water during dry weathers and well-structured drainage system to guide against flooding. Integrated aquaculture is also an important adaptive measure which has gained huge popularity in Nigeria. The use of low carbon producing energy source in the production and processing of product from aquaculture is a viable means to mitigate against climate change, example include the use of gas or electricity rather than charcoal in fish smoking. Aquaculture waste water treatment before discharge is also a good mitigation practice been recently developed. Climate change will have significant impacts on fisheries and aquaculture in Nigeria. Climate smart aquaculture will respond to these changes by boosting adaptive capacity and resilience both of communities and the ecosystems on which they depend. It is important therefore to ensure adaptation and mitigation in response to climate change so as to safeguard sustainable fish production and food security improvement.

Keywords: Climate Change, Fish production, Food Security, Sustainable Aquaculture

Mainstreaming Adaptation to Climate Change into Policy and Development: Case Study on Agriculture and Sustainable Food Security in Bangladesh (Published)

Our proposed study set up a long-term national climate adaptation framework for Bangladeshi policy makers. Outcomes of this research absolutely lead to measure the public perception, attitudes and understanding of the level of knowledge and the aspirations and expectations of publics with regard to how they adapted to a changing climate.  This study also identify if there are significant relationship between public perceptions and attitudes of climate change and efficient adaptation framework and plans to introduce some ideas. and concepts on the challenges toward the perceptions and policies as tools for achieving long-term solutions to climate change for the national policy framework.  More specific outcomes are a) understanding of public perceptions, attitudes towards climate change and their adaptation capacity in agriculture, industry and service sectors b) achievement of efficient national  adaptation framework c) enhanced knowledge on future climate change impacts and better capacity building on the long run integrated economic development and finally and d) recommendations and policy tools for achieving long-term solutions to climate change for the national policy framework.

Keywords: Agriculture, Bangladesh, Climate Change, Development, Food Security, Policy

Climate Change Images in Kenya’s News Photographic Representations (Published)

Visual symbolic forms dominate today’s communicative landscape. Climate change is a topical issue in societies and its debates are not solely confined to linguistic representation, but also evident in visual symbolic forms. The communicative strategy for symbolic forms enhances our understanding of climatic changes, which consequently would initiate appropriate action to counter adaptation deficit often experienced in many regions of the world. Drawing reference from the Kenyan media context, this paper focuses on news photographic representation to answer the question “Can society see the climate changing?” This paper highlights specific visual symbolic form modalities used in News broadcasts to effect the understanding of climate dynamics in Kenya. The study found out that pictorial representation in Kenya’s media triumphs in use of crisis metaphors. It found that visual forms often take lesser roles when accompanied by written texts in climate change reporting. It acknowledges that visual constructions of climate change issues in Kenya appear in both local and international media reports. Nevertheless, the authors warn that the power of photographic representations in climate change interventions should not be underestimated.

Keywords: Climate Change, Media, Photographic Representation, Symbolic Form, Visual Communication

Climate Change and Perceived Climate Hazards: A Trend Analysis in Southeast Nigeria (Published)

Current global climatic trends show a deviation from historic trends and this has necessitated this study. The paper analysed climate change trend and the perceived climatic hazards in Southeast Nigeria. Proportionate sampling technique was used to select a sample of 260 food crop farmers for the study and 232 questionnaires were returned. Secondary time series data on mean annual climate variables for a period of thirty years (1984-2014) were collected from National Root Crop Research Institute Umudike and crop output data from National Bureau of statistics. Data were analysed using descriptive statistical tools like polygon/histograms and line graphs. Also, the extent of damage by climate hazards as perceived by respondents was obtained using likert scale. The rainfall volume variation showed a very unstable pattern with high volatility over years with slightly increasing trend in the study area. Result shows that temperature is significant at 1% level of significance while rainfall volume, rainfall days, relative humidity and sunshine duration were insignificant. Rain day was characterized by unsteady rise and fall trend pattern. The trend also indicated an unsteady change in the movements of the relative humidity and sunshine levels. The result for the occurrence of climate hazards as perceived by farmers show 86.2 %, 64.68%, 63.79%, 77.82% of the respondents perceived to a great extent the impact of flooding, sea level rise, longer period of dry spell and wind storm respectively. Based on the finding, it is concluded that the damaging and devastating effects of climate change is in the increase. It is recommended therefore that adequate adaptive measures and mitigations be put in place to cushion the effect of climate change.

Keywords: Climate Change, Climate Hazards, Rainfall, Relative Humidity, Sunshine Duration, Temperature

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