Pulmonary Tuberculosis (PTB) persists as a major public health challenge in Nigeria. The study examined pulmonary tuberculosis and associated risk factors in Ekiti State. The study identified the presumed risk factors for PTB; examined the association between presumed risk factors and occurrence of pulmonary tuberculosis; and determined the association between the demographic variables and occurrence of pulmonary Tuberculosis in Ekiti State. This study was a retrospective, quantitative, non-experimental study. The research was conducted at Ekiti State ministry of health Tuberculosis, Leprosy, and Buruli Ulcer Control Centre. The sample was 2045 patients recorded from January 2015 to December 2019 in the Tuberculosis Central Register. The sample for the study was selected through a consecutive sampling technique. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data collected. The results were presented in tables as percentages, means, and standard deviation. Chi-square was used to test the hypotheses at a 0.05 level of significance. The study revealed that identified risk factors through patients treated in Ekiti State were alcohol/smoking, overcrowding, HIV, malnutrition diabetes, and unknown cause. A significant association was observed between presumed risk factors and the development of pulmonary tuberculosis. A significant association was also observed between the demographical variables and the development of pulmonary tuberculosis in Ekiti State. It was recommended among others that there should be more awareness of the risk factors of Tuberculosis in every community. Government should improve infrastructure, health policies, human resources development, services delivery at all health centers and Directly Observed Treatment Short-course (DOTs) clinics, and trained nurses, doctors, community health workers should be encouraged to work in rural areas.
Keywords: Ekiti State, pulmonary tuberculosis, risk factor