The study examined the conservation of biological resources in Isiala Ngwa, Southeastern, Nigeria with a view to assessing its implications for the achievement of the sustainable development goals. Also the anthropogenic drivers of biodiversity depletion in the study area were studied. The study utilized primary data obtained from field observation, focus group discussion and key informants’ interviews. Secondary data were also used in the study. Diversity indices of species were obtained from Quadrat Analysis using the Shannon Wiener’s Diversity Index. Data were analyzed using Principal Component Analysis and Descriptive Statistics. The study found that anthropogenic activities that drive biodiversity depletion in the study area were mainly agricultural land use practices such as deforestation, bush burning, crop farming, mixed farming, bush fallowing, and plantation agriculture, intercropping and hunting. Agricultural land use practices had negative impacts on biodiversity which resulted in the low diversity indices (0.02- 0.44).The results of the PCA on the impact of agricultural practices on biodiversity isolated three components explaining 64.29% of the variance. Legislation against indiscriminate bush burning, unauthorized hunting, bush fallowing with a longer fallow period were measures adopted in the paper to manage ecosystem biodiversity conservation.
Keywords: Anthropogenic drivers, Biodiversity, Diversity Indices, Sustainable Development, bio-resources conservation