Viruses mutate over time, and SARS-CoV-2 is no exception. Mutations in viruses occur naturally, and the more they circulate, the more likely they are to mutate. This study mainly focuses on assessing the socio-economic effects and implications of the COVID-19 pandemic, and the newely emerged Omicron variant in Sudan. A qualitative research approach was adopted in which a combination of secondary and primary data were collected. In this regard, a systematic literature review of peer-reviewed articles was carried out to collect the secondary data. While semi-structured personal interviews were conducted with key stakeholders. Furthermore, purposive/judgmental sampling was utilized to select interviewees, and their responses were analyzed using thematic content analysis. The findings of this study showed that Sudan’s economy was already stressed before the occurrence of the COVID-19 pandemic, due to currency crises, high inflation rates, and the inability of the authorities to provide subsidies. Moreover, the outbreak of coronavirus and subsequent lockdown ,in the first wave, had further worsened the socio-economic situation. The country suffered due to a sharp downfall in productivity, supply, and demand. All of which had adversely affected business sustainability, consumers’ preference and consumption, remittance inflows, and resulted in mass poverty in rural areas. Also, the emergence of Omicron variant have placed the global health systems on high alert. Therefore,this study proposes a framework to extend the research on the macro and microeconomic factors, that shape up the socioeconomic effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and Omicron variant. Furthermore, it recommended that Sudan’s poliy makers must reinforce and rebuild the health system as quickly as possible. To aid the country in recovering from the COVID-19 pandemic and any other catastrophic epidemic. In addition, the government must reform rules and invest in public health, economic stimulus, and social safety nets.
Keywords: COVID-19, Demand, Socioeconomic, business sustainability, omicron variant, supply