Due to annually recurring mass gatherings in Makkah, Saudi Arabia could be a hot spot for the collection of multidrug-resistant strains such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa). The various genotypes of extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) are SHV, TEM, CTX-M types VEB, PER, BEL-1, BES-1, ESBL enzymes in P. aeruginosa. The present study aimed to identify the prevalence these genes in P. aeruginosa isolates in Makkah hospitals. A total of 108 non-duplicated P. aeruginosa clinical isolates were identified in Makkah hospitals. ESBL production was confirmed using double disc synergy methods. All of ESBLs producer’s isolates were submitted to PCR technique for detection for various ESBLs genes. Selected strains were subjected to whole genome sequencing. About 28 (25.9%) of P. aeruginosa isolates were confirmed as ESBL producers. Also, 78.6% of ESBLs producer carried blaGES gene while blaPER, blaCTX-M, bla VEB, blaOXA-10, blaOXA-4 genes appeared in 22.4%, 10.7%, 10.7%, 7.1% and 3.6% respectively. It was concluded that the incidence of ESBLs encoding genes among P. aeruginosa isolates in Makkah is near to the global prevalence. Continuous surveillance is essential to monitor the ESBLs producing P. aeruginosa. Also introduction of whole genome sequencing was found to be useful for both species and resistance genes identification.
Keywords: Colistin., ESBL, Genes, Imipenem, P.Aeruginosa, blaGES, blaPER