This chapter provides background for information on TB and control activities. A brief of TB, the natural course of infection, clinical presentation ,and diagnosis, With a focus on developing countries, are outlined. The development of the world health organization’s (WHO)Directly observed Treatment, short-course (DOTS)strategy and the Natural TB control programmed(NTP)in Ghana will be examined. The impact of the advent of HIV/AIDS on global Incidence of TB, particularly, in sub-Sahara African will also be highlighted. The chapter end by pointing out the limitations of the DOTS strategy, particularly the low case detection rate in sub-Sahara Africa and states the importance of understanding TB stigma to help put in place interventions to encourage those suffering from TB to come forward to be tested for the disease.