British Journal of Earth Sciences Research (BJESR)

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Petrology and Petrochemistry of Basement Rocks in Ila Orangun Area, Southwestern Nigeria


From field studies, six (6) lithological units were identified to be common around the study area which includes quartzites, granites, granite gneiss, porphyritic granites, amphibolite and pegmatites. The results of petrographical analyses show the mineral assemblages of the various rock types in the area which include quartzites as containing quartz, biotite, muscovite and myrmekite. Granite gneiss contains quartz, biotite, orthoclase, myrmekite, microcline, nepheline, hornblende and plagioclase. Pegmatite contains quartz, myrmekite, plagioclase, hornblende, microcline and muscovites. Porphyritic granites were observed to contain quartz, biotite, microcline, orthoclase and tourmaline. Granite contains quartz, biotite, hornblende, plagioclase and orthoclase while Amphibolite schist contains quartz, biotite, hornblende and muscovites. For the purpose of this study twenty (20) pulverized rock samples were taken to the laboratory for geochemical analysis with their results used in the classification as well as suggest the geochemical attributes of the rocks. Geochemical results obtained and interpreted using various geochemical plots or discrimination plots all classified the rocks in the area as belonging to both the peralkaline metaluminous and peraluminous types. Results for the major oxides ratios produced for Na2O/K2O, Al2O3/Na2O + CaO + K2O and Na2O + CaO + K2O/Al2O3 show the excess of alumina, Al2O3 over the alkaline Na2O +CaO +k2O thus suggesting peraluminous rocks. While the excess of the alkali over the alumina suggests the peralkaline metaluminous rock type. The results of correlation coefficient show a perfect strong positive correlation which shows that they are of same geogenic sources while negative correlation coefficient values indicate a perfect weak negative correlation suggesting that they are of heterogeneous geogenic sources. The result of the factor analysis show the elemental association of the trace elements and heavy metals represented as variables in the statistical analysis. Hence, establishing the elemental association of Component 1 as consisting of Ag-As-Ba-Cd-Co, Component 2 as Cr-Cu-Ni, Component 3 as Pb-Rb, Component 4 as Zn-Fe-V and Component 5 as U-Mn. Component 1 suggest the possibilities of sulphide and gold mineralization. Component 2 suggesting pathfinder elements while Components 3, 4 and 5 suggest weathered or dispersed elements. Hence, the occurrence of heavy metallic minerals in the rocks will serve huge economic significance with focus on the pegmatites in the area.

Keywords: Ila Orangun, Pegmatites, Petrochemistry, peraluminous, petrography

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