British Journal of Environmental Sciences (BJES)

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Evaluation of Flora Species Diversity in Urban Formations of Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria


Species diversity represents the species richness or number of species found in an ecological community, including the abundance (number of individuals per species), and the distribution or evenness of species. It has contributed to the awareness of the loss of natural vegetation which is an on-going global issue. Therefore, the research work aimed at examining the flora diversity of Calabar Metropolis Cross River State, Nigeria.  However, the objectives for these studies are to identify and delineate areas of species abundant in urban formation of Calabar Metropolis. The methodology of Atu, & Bisong (2013) was adopted in delineating the urban area for the study. A four kilometer buffer zone was delineated from the CBD (Watt market) and labeled as highly built area, a second 3 kilometer was created from the limit of the first buffer zone as the moderately built up area and a two kilometer zone was taken from the edge of the second as the sparsely built up area. Furthermore, a buffer of 2 kilometers from the edge of the sparsely built up area was classified as non-built-up zone to another 3 kilometers. Thereafter the purposive sampling technique was used to select samples zones in each of the delineated areas (highly built up, moderately built up, sparsely built up and non- built up areas). Based on this classification Ekorinim, Satellite Town, Johnathan by-pass, Ikot Omin and Abayong community where the sampled zones. At each of the zones two sample plots were randomly selected. The trees were enumerated via transect walk lane of 1000m x 50m interval on site identification by the researcher. The analysis of the research findings shows a total of 72 species in the built and non built-up area of the study, 36 Trees, 17 shrubs and 19 herbs as shown in table 1.1 and 1.2 respectively. Some of the species of trees enumerated were: Alstonia conggensis, Mittragyna stepolusa, Musanga cecropioides. Mussaenda erythrophylla Anacardium occidentalis, Ipomoza Involucrata are some examples of the shrubs identified and Clerodendrum splendens, Calopogonium mucunoides, Aspilic africana. In the same vein, the result of hypothesis which states that: there is no significant difference in flora species diversity among the various built-up areas was rejected while the alternate upheld. It was concluded based on the results that there is a significant difference in flora species diversity of the study area. Therefore, it is recommended that the ecological flora survey should be carried out periodically in the study area to ascertain the affected flora species.

Keywords: flora vegetation, species diversity and urban formations

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