British Journal of Education (BJE)

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Use of E-Learning Strategies and Students’ Retention of Knowledge in Basic Science and Technology,


The study focused on enhancing students’ retention of knowledge using two e-learning strategies in Basic Science and Technology in Benue, Nigeria.  A non-randomised control group, pretest-posttest quasi-experimental design was employed.  The study population comprised 27367 Upper Basic II students where a sample of 202 was drawn using multistage sampling technique. Developed Machine-Assisted Learning (MAL) and Virtual Science Laboratory (VSL) apps by the researchers were used as pedagogical strategies. The instrument used for data collection was Basic Science and Performance Test (BSTPT) which was transformed to Basic Science and Technology Retention Test (BSTRT) through reshuffling.  This was validated, trial-tested and subjected to reliability analysis using Kuder Richardson (KR)-21 which gave 0.94.  Four research questions were stated and analysed using mean and standard deviation, and graphs while four hypotheses were stated and tested using Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) at 0.050 level of significance. The findings revealed that, there were significant differences in the mean retention scores [F2, 195 = 199.689, p = 0.000 < 0.050] among MAL, VSL and Expository groups. A follow up pair wise comparisons confirmed the hypothesis in all the three combinations: MAL and VSL (p = 0.000 < 0.05); MAL and Expository (p = 0.00 0< 0.05) and VSL and Expository (p = 0.000 < 0.05). The findings also revealed that, there was no significant gender disparity in the mean retention scores of the students in MAL [F1, 57 = 0.817, p = 0.370 > 0.050] and VSL [F1, 72 = 0.226, p = 0.636 > 0.050]. It was further found that, there was no significant interaction effect of strategies and gender on the students’ mean retention score [F2, 195 = 0.191, p =0.826 > 0.050]. The study concluded that the use of MAL and VSL apps have enhanced students’ knowledge retention in BST than expository strategy. Based on the findings, it was recommended among other things that, the government and teachers-trainees’ institutions should train teachers on the development and implementation of the MAL and VSL since they have greater effects on students’ durable memory.

Keywords: E-learning, Gender, and basic science and technology, machine-assisted learning, retention of knowledge, virtual science laboratory

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